Frequency-Hopping Systems

  • Don Torrieri


Frequency hopping is the periodic changing of the carrier frequency of a transmitted signal. This time-varying characteristic potentially endows a communication system with great strength against interference. Whereas a direct-sequence system relies on spectral spreading, spectral despreading, and filtering to suppress interference, the basic mechanism of interference suppression in a frequency-hopping system is avoidance. When avoidance fails, it is only temporary because of the periodic changing of the carrier frequency. The impact of the interference is further mitigated by the pervasive use of channel codes, which are more essential for frequency-hopping systems than for direct-sequence systems. The basic concepts, spectral and performance aspects, and coding and modulation issues of frequency-hopping systems are presented in this chapter. The effects of partial-band interference and multitone jamming are examined, and the most important issues in the design of frequency synthesizers are described.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Don Torrieri
    • 1
  1. 1.Silver SpringUSA

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