Smoking Cessation

  • Brandon T. SanfordEmail author


Smoking prevalence is commonly defined as percentage of daily smokers in a population. Worldwide this rate is approximately 31.1% for men and 6.2% for women (Ng et al., 2014). Prevalence estimates in the United States are slightly lower for men at 22.2% and considerably higher for women at 17.9% (Dwyer-Lindgren et al., 2014). Dwyer-Lindgren et al. (2014) also observed regions in the southern United States and regions with higher Native American populations to have elevated prevalence rates. Smoking rates are higher in US veteran populations (Brown, 2010), lower socioeconomic status populations, and rural populations (Casetta et al., 2016; Nagelhout et al., 2012). Concerningly, prevalence rates for smoking have been observed to be higher in several vulnerable populations. For example, those with poorer mental health are over twice as likely to be smokers (Steinberg, Williams, & Li, 2015), and while smoking rates have been slowly decreasing both in the United States and worldwide, this is not true to those with poor mental health. Among youths with mental health or substance abuse problems, rates have been observed to be as high as 64.5% for those between the ages of 12 and 18 and 72.7% among those between the ages of 19 and 24 (Catchpole, McLeod, Brownlie, Allison, & Grewal, 2016). Those admitted for inpatient medical care are approximately 33% more likely to be smokers (Harrison, Preston, Bucur, & Fletcher, 2012). Likewise, those diagnosed with COPD are 48% more likely to be smokers than those who are not (Vozoris & Stanbrook, 2011). Finally, approximately 26.6% of women are smokers during their first month of pregnancy (Alshaarawy & Anthony, 2015). It should be noted that this is in line with the point prevalence rate for women between the ages of 12 and 44. This study reports 11.3% of women continue to smoke through the entirety of their pregnancy. In summary, smoking is a highly common problem which is especially likely to be confronted in an integrated care setting. Clinics which primarily serve low SES or Native American populations, are located in the southern United States, or who see a higher than average rate of individuals with poor mental health are especially likely to engage with smokers.


Smoking Smoking cessation Program development 5 As Tobacco Tobacco cessation Motivational interviewing 


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Nevada, RenoRenoUSA

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