Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia

  • Ellen I. KochEmail author
  • Michelle A. Fernando


Panic disorder (PD) is characterized by the presence of recurrent unexpected panic attacks and anxiety about their reoccurrence. Panic attacks can be defined as, “an abrupt surge of intense fear or intense discomfort that reaches a peak within minutes” (p. 208, APA, 2013). These involve a wide range of physiological symptoms, such as increased heart rate, shortness of breath, sweating, chest pain, gastrointestinal distress, dizziness, and numbness. The rapid onset of these symptoms is often accompanied by psychological distress, such as the feeling of “going crazy,” losing control, or dying. In addition to panic attacks, a diagnosis of PD necessitates at least 1 month of anxiety or avoidance about future panic attacks. To cope with this fear, the individual may avoid activities that involve physiological arousal, with the belief that arousal will provoke a full panic episode. For example, the individual may avoid physical exercise because these activities often lead to accelerated heart rate, sweating, and shortness of breath, which may also be experienced during a panic attack. In general, PD is characterized by both recurrent panic attacks and a persistent fear or avoidance of future panic episodes.


Panic disorder Agoraphobia Cognitive-behavioral therapy Interoceptive exposure Panic screeners Panic control treatment Cognitive therapy In vivo exposure Breathing retraining Cognitive restructuring Safety behaviors Avoidance 


  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amstadter, A. B., Broman-Fulks, J., Zinzow, H., Ruggiero, K. J., & Cercone, J. (2009). Internet-based interventions for traumatic stress-related mental health problems: A review and suggestion for future research. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(5), 410–420. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersson, G., Bergström, J., Carlbring, P., & Lindefors, N. (2005). The use of the internet in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 18(1), 73–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Andersson, G., Carlbring, P., & Grimlund, A. (2008). Predicting treatment outcome in internet versus face to face treatment of panic disorder. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(5), 1790–1801. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrews, G., Cuijpers, P., Craske, M. G., McEvoy, P., & Titov, N. (2010). Computer therapy for the anxiety and depressive disorders is effective, acceptable and practical health care: A meta-analysis. PLoS One, 5(10), e13196. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Angst, J. (1998). Panic disorder: History and epidemiology. European Psychiatry, 13(Suppl. 2), 51s–55s. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anthony, M. M., & McCabe, R. E. (2004). 10 simple solutions to panic: How to overcome panic attacks, calm physical symptoms, and reclaim your life. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc..Google Scholar
  8. Apfeldorf, W. J., Shear, M. K., Leon, A. C., & Portera, L. (1994). A brief screen for panic disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 8(1), 71–78. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arch, J. J., Eifert, G. H., Davies, C., Vilardaga, J. C. P., Rose, R. D., & Craske, M. G. (2012). Randomized clinical trial of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for mixed anxiety disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(5), 750–765. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Asmundson, G. J. G., Fetzner, M. G., Deboer, L. B., Powers, M. B., Otto, M. W., & Smits, J. A. J. (2013). Let’s get physical: A contemporary review of the anxiolytic effects of exercise for anxiety and its disorders. Depression and Anxiety, 30(4), 362–373. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Asnaani, A., Richey, J. A., Dimaite, R., Hinton, D. E., & Hofmann, S. G. (2010). A cross-ethnic comparison of lifetime prevalence rates of anxiety disorders. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198(8), 551–555. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Austin, S. F., Sumbundu, A. D., Lykke, J., & Oestrich, I. H. (2008). Treating panic symptoms within everyday clinical settings: The feasibility of a group cognitive behavioural intervention. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 62(4), 287–293. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baillie, A. J., & Rapee, R. M. (2004). Predicting who benefits from psychoeducation and self help for panic attacks. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42(5), 513–527. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Baldwin, D. S. (1998). Depression and panic: Comorbidity. European Psychiatry, 13(Suppl. 2).
  15. Barlow, D. H., & Craske, M. G. (2007a). Mastery of your anxiety and panic, Therapist guide (4th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Barlow, D. H., & Craske, M. G. (2007b). Mastery of your anxiety and panic, Workbook (4th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Barsky, A. J., Delamater, B. A., & Orav, J. E. (1999). Panic disorder patients and their medical care. Psychosomatics, 40(1), 50–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Batelaan, N., De Graaf, R., Van Balkom, A., Vollebergh, W., & Beekman, A. (2007). Thresholds for health and thresholds for illness: Panic disorder versus subthreshold panic disorder. Psychological Medicine, 37(2), 247–256. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., Ball, R., Ciervo, C. A., & Kabat, M. (1997). Use of the beck anxiety and depression inventories for primary care with medical outpatients. Assessment, 4(3), 211–219. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bélanger, C., Courchesne, C., Leduc, A. G., Dugal, C., El-Baalbaki, G., Marchand, A., … Perreault, M. (2017). Predictors of dropout from cognitive-behavioral group treatment for panic disorder with agoraphobia: An exploratory study. Behavior Modification, 41(1), 113–140. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Berger, T., Urech, A., Krieger, T., Stolz, T., Schulz, A., Vincent, A., … Meyer, B. (2017). Effects of a transdiagnostic unguided internet intervention (“velibra”) for anxiety disorders in primary care: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine, 47(1), 67–80. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bergstrom, J., Andersson, G., Ljotsson, B., Ruck, C., Andreewitch, S., Karlsson, A., … Lindefors, N. (2010). Internet-versus group-administered cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder in a psychiatric setting: A randomised trial. BMC Psychiatry, 10, 54. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Berwick, D. M., Murphy, J. M., Goldman, P. A., Ware, J. E. J., Barsky, A. J., & Weinstein, M. C. (1991). Performance of a five-item mental health screening test. Medical Care, 29(2), 169–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Birchall, H., Brandon, S., & Taub, N. (2000). Panic in a general practice population: Prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity and associated disability. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 35(6), 235–241. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Broadhead, W. E., Leon, A. C., Weissman, M. M., Barrett, J. E., Blacklow, R. S., Gilbert, T. T., … Higgins, E. S. (1995). Development and validation of the SDDS-PC screen for multiple mental disorders in primary care. Archives of Family Medicine, 4, 211–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Butler, A. C., Chapman, J. E., Forman, E. M., & Beck, A. T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(1), 17–31. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Campbell-Sills, L., Roy-Byrne, P. P., Craske, M. G., Bystritsky, A., Sullivan, G., & Stein, M. B. (2016). Improving outcomes for patients with medication-resistant anxiety: Effects of collaborative care with cognitive behavioral therapy. Depression and Anxiety, 33(12), 1099–1106. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Campbell-Sills, L., Sherbourne, C. D., Roy-Byrne, P., Craske, M. G., Sullivan, G., Bystritsky, A., … Stein, M. B. (2012). Effects of co-occurring depression on treatment for anxiety disorders: Analysis of outcomes from a large primary care effectiveness trial. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 73(12), 1509–1516. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Carlbring, P., Westling, B. E., & Andersson, G. (2000). A review of published self-help books for panic disorder. Scandinavian Journal of Behaviour Therapy, 29(June), 5–13. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chen, M. H., & Tsai, S. J. (2016). Treatment-resistant panic disorder: Clinical significance, concept and management. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 70, 219–226. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chou, K.-L. (2010). Panic disorder in older adults: Evidence from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 25(8), 822–832. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Clark, D. M. (1994). Cognitive therapy for panic disorder. In B. E. Wolfe & J. D. Maser (Eds.), Treatment of panic disorder: A consensus development conference (pp. 121–132). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  33. Clum, G. A. (1990). Coping with panic: A drug-free approach to dealing with anxiety attacks. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing.Google Scholar
  34. Craske, M., & Barlow, D. H. (2014). Panic disorder and agoraphobia. In D. H. Barlow (Ed.), Clinical handbook of psychological disorders (pp. 1–61). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  35. Craske, M. G., Rose, R. D., Lang, A., Welch, S. S., Campbell-Sills, L., Sullivan, G., … Roy-Byrne, P. P. (2009). Computer-assisted delivery of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders in primary-care settings. Depression and Anxiety, 26(3), 235–242. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Craske, M. G., & Rowe, M. K. (1997). Nocturnal panic. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 4(2), 153–174.Google Scholar
  37. Craske, M. G., Stein, M. B., Sullivan, G., Sherbourne, C., Bystritsky, A., Rose, R. D., … Roy-Byrne, P. (2011). Disorder-specific impact of coordinated anxiety learning and management treatment for anxiety disorders in primary care. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(4), 378. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cuijpers, P., Cristea, I. A., Weitz, E., Gentili, C., & Berking, M. (2016). The effects of cognitive and behavioural therapies for anxiety disorders on depression: A meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine, 46(16), 3451–3462. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cuijpers, P., Gentili, C., Banos, R. M., Garcia-Campayo, J., Botella, C., & Cristea, I. A. (2016). Relative effects of cognitive and behavioral therapies on generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder and panic disorder: A meta-analysis. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 43, 79–89. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cuijpers, P., Marks, I. M., van Straten, A., Cavanagh, K., Gega, L., & Andersson, G. (2009). Computer-aided psychotherapy for anxiety disorders: A meta-analytic review. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 38(2), 66–82. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. de Jonge, P., Roest, A. M., Lim, C. C. W., Florescu, S. E., Bromet, E. J., Stein, D. J., … Scott, K. M. (2016). Cross-national epidemiology of panic disorder and panic attacks in the world mental health surveys. Depression and Anxiety, 33, 1–23. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Deacon, B., Lickel, J., & Abramowitz, J. S. (2008). Medical utilization across the anxiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(2), 344–350. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Freeman, M. P., Freeman, S. A., & McElroy, S. L. (2002). The comorbidity of bipolar and anxiety disorders: Prevalence, psychobiology, and treatment issues. Journal of Affective Disorders, 68(1), 1–23. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Furukawa, T. A., Watanabe, N., & Churchill, R. A. (2006). Psychotherapy plus antidepressant for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia: Systematic review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 188, 305–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gardenswartz, C. A., & Craske, M. G. (2001). Prevention of panic disorder. Behavior Therapy, 32(4), 725–737. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Goodwin, R. D., & Hoven, C. W. (2002). Bipolar-panic comorbidity in the general population: Prevalence and associated morbidity. Journal of Affective Disorders, 70(1), 27–33. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Goorden, M., Muntingh, A., van Marwijk, H., Spinhoven, P., Adèr, H., van Balkom, A., … Hakkaart-van Roijen, L. (2014). Cost utility analysis of a collaborative stepped care intervention for panic and generalized anxiety disorders in primary care. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 77(1), 57–63. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Haug, T., Nordgreen, T., Öst, L.-G., Kvale, G., Tangen, T., Andersson, G., … Havik, O. E. (2015). Stepped care versus face-to–face cognitive behavior therapy for panic disorder and social anxiety disorder: Predictors and moderators of outcome. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 71, 76–89. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Heatley, C., Ricketts, T., & Forrest, J. (2005). Training general practitioners in cognitive behavioural therapy for panic disorder: Randomized-controlled trial. Journal of Mental Health, 14(1), 73–82. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Helbig-Lang, S., Richter, J., Lang, T., Gerlach, A. L., Fehm, L., Alpers, G. W., … Wittchen, H.-U. (2014). The role of safety behaviors in exposure-based treatment for panic disorder and agoraphobia: Associations to symptom severity, treatment course, and outcome. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28(8), 836–844. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hofmann, S. G., Wu, J. Q., & Boettcher, H. (2014). Effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders on quality of life: A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(3), 375–391. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Houck, P. R., Spiegel, D. A., Shear, M. K., & Rucci, P. (2002). Reliability of the self-report version of the panic disorder severity scale. Depression and Anxiety, 15(4), 183–185. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Huffman, J. C., & Pollack, M. H. (2003). Predicting panic disorder among patients with chest pain: An analysis of the literature. Psychosomatics, 44(3), 222–236. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hunsley, J. (2003). Cost-effectiveness and medical cost-offset considerations in psychological service provision. Canadian Psychology, 44(1), 61–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hunter, E. E., Penick, E. C., Powell, B. J., Othmer, E., Nickel, E. J., & Desouza, C. (2005). Development of scales to screen for eight common psychiatric disorders. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193(2), 131–135. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Inoue, K., Kaiya, H., Hara, N., & Okazaki, Y. (2016). A discussion of various aspects of panic disorder depending on presence or absence of agoraphobia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 69, 132–135. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Joesch, J. M., Sherbourne, C. D., Sullivan, G., Stein, M. B., Craske, M. G., & Roy-Byrne, P. (2012). Incremental benefits and cost of coordinated anxiety learning and management for anxiety treatment in primary care. Psychological Medicine, 42(9), 1937–1948. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Johnson, M. R., Hartzema, A. G., Mills, T. L., De Leon, J. M., Yang, M., Frueh, C., & Santos, A. (2007). Ethnic differences in the reliability and validity of a panic disorder screen. Ethnicity & Health, 12(3), 283–296. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Katon, W., Russo, J., Sherbourne, C., Stein, M. B., Craske, M., Fan, M.-Y., & Roy-Byrne, P. (2006). Incremental cost-effectiveness of a collaborative care intervention for panic disorder. Psychological Medicine, 36(3), 353–363. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kenardy, J. A., Dow, M. G. T., Johnston, D. W., Newman, M. G., Thomson, A., & Taylor, C. B. (2003). A comparison of delivery methods of cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder: An international multicenter trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(6), 1068–1075. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kessler, R. C., Avenevoli, S., McLaughlin, K. A., Green, J. G., Lakoma, M. D., Petukhova, M., … Merikangas, K. R. (2012). Lifetime co-morbidity of DSM-IV disorders in the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Psychological Medicine, 42, 1997–2010. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kessler, R. C., Calabrese, J. R., Farley, P. A., Gruber, M. J., Jewell, M. A., Katon, W., … Wittchen, H.-U. (2013). Composite international diagnostic interview screening scales for DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders. Psychological Medicine, 43(8), 1625–1637. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kessler, R. C., Chiu, W. T., Jin, R., Ruscio, A. M., Shear, K., & Walters, E. E. (2006). The epidemiology of panic attacks, panic disorder, and agoraphobia in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(4), 415–424. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kikuchi, M., Komuro, R., Oka, H., Kidani, T., Hanaoka, A., & Koshino, Y. (2005). Panic disorder with and without agoraphobia: Comorbidity within a half-year of the onset of panic disorder. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 59(6), 639–643. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lambert, R. A., Harvey, I., & Poland, F. (2007). A pragmatic, unblinded randomised controlled trial comparing an occupational therapy-led lifestyle approach and routine GP care for panic disorder treatment in primary care. Journal of Affective Disorders, 99(1–3), 63–71. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Leskin, G. A., & Sheikh, J. I. (2002). Lifetime trauma history and panic disorder: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 16(6), 599–603. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lessard, M.-J., Marchand, A., Pelland, M.-È., Belleville, G., Vadeboncoeur, A., Chauny, J.-M., … Lavoie, K. L. (2012). Comparing two brief psychological interventions to usual care in panic disorder patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 40(2), 129–147. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lewis, C., Pearce, J., & Bisson, J. I. (2012). Efficacy, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of self-help interventions for anxiety disorders: Systematic review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 200(1), 15–21. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Löwe, B., Gräfe, K., Zipfel, S., Spitzer, R. L., Herrmann-Lingen, C., Witte, S., & Herzog, W. (2003). Detecting panic disorder in medical and psychosomatic outpatients: Comparative validation of the hospital anxiety and depression scale, the patient health questionnaire, a screening question, and physicians’ diagnosis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 55(6), 515–519. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. MacGregor, A. D., Hayward, L., Peck, D. F., & Wilkes, P. (2009). Empirically grounded clinical interventions clients’ and referrers’ perceptions of computer-guided CBT (FearFighter). Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 37(1), 1. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mahony, J. F. O., & Ward, B. G. (2003). Differences between those who panic by day and those who also panic by night. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 34, 239–249. Google Scholar
  72. Marcks, B., Weisberg, R., & Keller, M. (2009). Psychiatric treatment received by primary care patients with panic disorder with and without agoraphobia. Psychiatric Services, 60(6), 823–830. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Marks, I. M. (2005). Living with fear: Understanding and coping with anxiety (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  74. Marks, I. M., Kenwright, M., McDonough, M., Whittaker, M., & Mataix-Cols, D. (2004). Saving clinicians’ time by delegating routine aspects of therapy to a computer: A randomized controlled trial in phobia/panic disorder. Psychological Medicine, 34(1), 9–17. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Means-Christensen, A. J., Arnau, R. C., Tonidandel, A. M., Bramson, R., & Meagher, M. W. (2005). An efficient method of identifying major depression and panic disorder in primary care. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 28(6), 565–572. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Means-Christensen, A. J., Sherbourne, C. D., Roy-Byrne, P. P., Craske, M. G., & Stein, M. B. (2006). Using five questions to screen for five common mental disorders in primary care: Diagnostic accuracy of the anxiety and depression detector. General Hospital Psychiatry, 28(2), 108–118. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Meyerbröker, K., & Emmelkamp, P. M. G. (2010). Virtual reality exposure therapy in anxiety disorders: A systematic review of process-and-outcome studies. Depression and Anxiety, 27(10), 933–944. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Meyerbröker, K., Morina, N., Kerkhof, G., & Emmelkamp, P. M. G. (2011). Virtual reality exposure treatment of agoraphobia: A comparison of computer automatic virtual environment and head-mounted display. Annual Review of CyberTherapy and Telemedicine, 9(1), 41–45. Google Scholar
  79. Mitte, K. (2005). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of psycho- and pharmacotherapy in panic disorder with and without agoraphobia. Journal of Affective Disorders, 88(1), 27–45. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Newman, M. G., Erickson, T., Przeworski, A., & Dzus, E. (2003). Self-help and minimal-contact therapies for anxiety disorders: Is human contact necessary for therapeutic efficacy? Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59(3), 251–274. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nordgreen, T., Haug, T., Öst, L.-G., Andersson, G., Carlbring, P., Kvale, G., … Havik, O. E. (2016). Stepped care versus direct face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder and panic disorder: A randomized effectiveness trial. Behavior Therapy, 47(2), 166–183. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Norman, S. B., Cissell, S. H., Means-Christensen, A. J., & Stein, M. B. (2006). Development and validation of an overall anxiety severity and impairment scale (OASIS). Depression and Anxiety, 23, 245–249. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Otto, M. W., Smits, J. A. J., & Reese, H. E. (2004). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65(Suppl. 5), 34–41. Retrieved from PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Otto, M. W., Tolin, D. F., Nations, K. R., Utschig, A. C., Rothbaum, B. O., Hofmann, S. G., & Smits, J. A. J. (2012). Five sessions and counting: Considering ultra-brief treatment for panic disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 29(6), 465–470. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ougrin, D. (2011). Efficacy of exposure versus cognitive therapy in anxiety disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry, 11(1), 200. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Parrish, C. L., Radomsky, A. S., & Dugas, M. J. (2008). Anxiety-control strategies: Is there room for neutralization in successful exposure treatment? Clinical Psychology Review, 28(8), 1400–1412. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Perez-Ara, M. A., Quero, S., Botella, C., Banos, R., Andreu-Mateu, S., Garcia-Palacios, A., & Breton-Lopez, J. (2010). Virtual reality interoceptive exposure for the treatment of panic disorder and agoraphobia. Annual Review of CyberTherapy and Telemedicine, 8, 61–64.Google Scholar
  88. Power, K. G., Sharp, D. M., Swanson, V., & Simpson, R. J. (2000). Therapist contact in cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder and agoraphobia in primary care. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 7, 37–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rees, C. S., Richards, J. C., & Smith, L. M. (1998). Medical utilisation and costs in panic disorder: A comparison with social phobia. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 12(5), 421–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Reger, M. A., & Gahm, G. A. (2009). A meta-analysis of the effects of internet- and computer-based cognitive-behavioral treatments for anxiety. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(1), 53–75. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rodrigues, H., Figueira, I., Gonçalves, R., Mendlowicz, M., Macedo, T., & Ventura, P. (2011). CBT for pharmacotherapy non-remitters-a systematic review of a next-step strategy. Journal of Affective Disorders, 129(1–3), 219–228. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rogers, M. P., White, K., Warshaw, M. G., Yonkers, K. A., Rodriguez-Villa, F., Chang, G., & Keller, M. B. (1994). Prevalence of medical illness in patients with anxiety disorders. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 24(1), 83–96. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rollman, B. L., Belnap, B. H., Mazumdar, S., Houck, P. R., Zhu, F., Gardner, W., … Shear, M. K. (2005). A randomized trial to improve the quality of treatment for panic and generalized anxiety disorders in primary care. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(12), 1332–1341. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Roshanaei-Moghaddam, B., Pauly, M. C., Atkins, D. C., Baldwin, S. A., Stein, M. B., & Roy-Byrne, P. (2011). Relative effects of CBT and pharmacotherapy in depression versus anxiety: Is medication somewhat better for depression, and CBT somewhat better for anxiety? Depression and Anxiety, 28(7), 560–567. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Roy-Byrne, P., Craske, M. G., Sullivan, G., Rose, R. D., Edlund, M. J., Lang, A. J., … Stein, M. B. (2010). Delivery of evidence-based treatment for multiple anxiety disorders in primary care. JAMA, 303(19), 1921. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Roy-Byrne, P. P., Craske, M. G., Stein, M. B., Sullivan, G., Bystritsky, A., Katon, W., … Sherbourne, C. D. (2005). A randomized effectiveness trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy and medication for primary care panic disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(3), 290–298. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Roy-Byrne, P. P., Stein, M. B., Russo, J., Mercier, E., Thomas, R., McQuaid, J., … Sherbourne, C. D. (1999). Panic disorder in the primary care setting: Comorbidity, disability, service utilization, and treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60, 492–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Roy-Byrne, P. P., Wagner, A. W., & Schraufnagel, T. J. (2005). Understanding and treating panic disorder in the primary care setting. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66(Suppl 4), 16–22. Retrieved from PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Sánchez-Meca, J., Rosa-Alcázar, A. I., Marín-Martínez, F., & Gómez-Conesa, A. (2010). Psychological treatment of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(1), 37–50. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sarísoy, G., Böke, Ö., Arík, A. C., & Şahin, A. R. (2008). Panic disorder with nocturnal panic attacks: Symptoms and comorbidities. European Psychiatry, 23(3), 195–200. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Schwartze, D., Barkowski, S., Strauss, B., Burlingame, G. M., Barth, J., & Rosendahl, J. (2017). Efficacy of group psychotherapy for panic disorder: Meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 21(2), 77–93. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sharp, D. M., Power, K. G., & Swanson, V. (2004). A comparison of the efficacy and acceptability of group versus individual cognitive behaviour therapy in the treatment of panic disorder and agoraphobia in primary care. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 11, 73–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Shear, K. M., Brown, T. A., Barlow, D. H., Money, R., Sholomskas, D. E., Woods, S. W., … Papp, L. A. (1997). Multicenter collaborative panic disorder severity scale. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154(11), 1571–1575. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Shear, M. K., Houck, P., Greeno, C., & Masters, S. (2001). Emotion-focused psychotherapy for patients with panic disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(12), 1993–1998. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sherbourne, C. D., Sullivan, G., Craske, M. G., Roy-Byrne, P., Golinelli, D., Rose, R. D., … Stein, M. B. (2010). Functioning and disability levels in primary care out-patients with one or more anxiety disorders. Psychological Medicine, 40(12), 2059–2068. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Simon, G. E., & VonKorff, M. (1991). Somatization and psychiatric disorder in the NIMH epidemiologic catchment area study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148(11), 1494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B. W., Kroenke, K., Linzer, M., Verloin, F., Hahn, S. R., … Johnson, J. G. (1994). Utility of a new procedure for diagnosing mental disorders in primary care: The PRIME-MD 1000 study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 272(22), 1749–1756. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Stein, M. B., Roy-Byrne, P. P., Craske, M. G., Campbell-Sills, L., Lang, A. J., Golinelli, D., … Sherbourne, C. D. (2011). Quality of and patient satisfaction with primary health care for anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72(7), 970–976. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Stein, M. B., Roy-Byrne, P. P., Mcquaid, J. R., Laffaye, C., Russo, J., Mccahill, M. E., … Sherbourne, C. D. (1999). Development of a brief diagnostic screen for panic disorder in primary care. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61(3), 359–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Stewart, A. L., Hays, R. D., & Ware, J. E. (1988). The MOS short-form general health survey: Reliability and validity in a patient population. Medical Care, 26(7), 724–735. Retrieved from PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Swift, J. K., Greenberg, R. P., Tompkins, K. A., & Parkin, S. R. (2017). Treatment refusal and premature termination in psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and their combination: A meta-analysis of head-to-head comparisons. Psychotherapy, 54(1), 47–57. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Taylor, S. (2001). Breathing retraining in the treatment of panic disorder: Efficacy, caveats and indications. Scandinavian Journal of Behaviour Therapy, 30(2), 49–56. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Teng, E. J., Barrera, T. L., Hiatt, E. L., Chaison, A. D., Dunn, N. J., Petersen, N. J., & Stanley, M. A. (2015). Intensive weekend group treatment for panic disorder and its impact on co-occurring PTSD: A pilot study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 33, 1–7. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Van Beek, M. H. C. T., Oude Voshaar, R. C., Beek, A. M., Van Zijderveld, G. A., Visser, S., Speckens, A. E. M., … Van Balkom, A. J. L. M. (2013). A brief cognitive-behavioral intervention for treating depression and panic disorder in patients with noncardiac chest pain: A 24-week randomized controlled trial. Depression and Anxiety, 30(7), 670–678. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Watanabe, N., Churchill, R., & Furukawa, T. A. (2007). Combination of psychotherapy and benzodiazepines versus either therapy alone for panic disorder: A systematic review. BMC Psychiatry, 7(1), 18. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Westen, D., & Morrison, K. (2001). A multidimensional meta-analysis of treatments for depression, panic, and generalized anxiety disorder: An empirical examination of the status of empirically supported therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(6), 875–899. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wilson, R. (2009). Don’t panic: Taking control of anxiety attacks (3rd ed.). New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.Google Scholar
  118. Wittchen, H.-U., Nocon, A., Beesdo, K., Pine, D. S., Hofler, M., Lieb, R., & Gloster, A. T. (2008). Agoraphobia and panic. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 77, 147–157. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zigmond, A. S., & Snaith, R. P. (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67(6), 361–370. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zuercher-White, E. (1998). An end to panic: Breakthrough techniques for overcoming panic disorder (2nd ed.). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications..Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyEastern Michigan UniversityYpsilantiUSA

Personalised recommendations