Advertisement

Obesity

  • Sarah M. Lindeman
  • Alexandros MaragakisEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The rise in obesity rates seen over the course of the last three decades has received significant attention from healthcare professionals and government officials (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2015a). Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey have shown a rise in adult prevalence rates from approximately 23% in the 1988–1994 survey to an estimated 34% in the 2005–2006 survey (CDC, 2015a). In addition, 10–15% of children meet the criteria for obesity (Mitchell, Catenacci, Wyatt, & Hill, 2011). These staggering rates are accompanied by increased risk of developing a wide range of diseases and health problems, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, sleep apnea (pauses in, or shallow, breathing while sleeping), and reproductive issues (CDC, 2015b; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), 2012). Due to these health complications, healthcare costs for obese patients are approximately $1,429 per year more than nonobese patients (CDC, 2015b). As prevalence rates for obesity remain alarmingly high, the need for healthcare providers to understand effective treatment options for this disease continues to grow. Fortunately, a large body of research regarding this topic provides substantial information to inform the treatment of patients with obesity.

Keywords

Weight loss interventions Obesity treatment Integrated care Obesity Screening Outcome evaluation 

References

  1. American Diabetes Association. (2013). Managing stress and diabetes. Retrieved from http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/parents-and-kids/everyday-life/managing-stress-and-diabetes.html
  2. American Heart Association. (2016). Understanding the American obesity epidemic. Retrieved from http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/HealthyLiving/WeightManagement/Obesity/Understanding-the-American-Obesity-Epidemic_UCM_461650_Article.jsp#. V1SsIZErK00
  3. American Psychological Association. (2016). Mind/body health: Obesity. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/obesity.aspx
  4. Barnes, R. D., White, M. A., Martino, S., & Grilo, C. M. (2014). A randomized controlled trial comparing scalable weight loss treatments in primary care. Obesity, 22, 2508–2516.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Bobbit, B. L., Cate, R. A., Beardslet, S. D., Azocar, F., & McCulloch, J. (2012). Quality improvement and outcomes in the future of professional psychology: Opportunities and challenges. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 43(6), 551–559.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028899 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burke, B. L., Arkowitz, H., & Menchola, M. (2003). The efficacy of motivational interviewing: A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(5), 843–861.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.71.5.843 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Burke, L.E., Wang, J., & Sevick, M.A. (2012). Self-monitoring in weight loss: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics,111(1), 92-102. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2010.10.008
  8. Carels, R. A., Wott, C. B., Young, K. M., Gumble, A., Darby, L. A., Oehlhof, M. W., … Koball, A. (2009). Successful weight loss with self-help: a stepped-care approach. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32(6), 503–509.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-009-9221-8 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Carels, R. A., Young, K. M., Hinman, N., Gumble, A., Koball, A., Oehlhof, M. W., & Darby, L. (2012). Stepped-care in obesity treatment: matching treatment intensity to participant performance. Eating Behaviors, 13(2), 112–118.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2012.01.002 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Defining adult overweight and obesity. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/adult/defining.html
  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015a). Prevalence of overweight, obesity and extreme obesity among adults: United States, trends 1960-62 through 2005-2006. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/overweight/overweight_adult.htm
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015b). Obesity facts. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015c). Losing weight. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/losing_weight/
  14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015d). Losing weight: Getting started. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/losing_weight/getting_started.html
  15. Charlton, S., Sobel, K., & Sobel, S. (2016). Psychology: The science of who we are (Vol. 1, 2nd ed.). Southlake, TX: Fountain Head Press.Google Scholar
  16. Gayes, L. A., & Steele, R. G. (2014). A meta-analysis of motivational interviewing interventions for pediatric health behavior change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(3), 521–535.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035917 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gormally, J., & Rardin, D. (1981). Weight loss and maintenance and changes in diet and exercise for behavioral counseling and nutrition education. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 28(4), 295–304.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.28.4.295 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hardcastle, S. J., Taylor, A. H., Bailey, M. P., Harley, R. A., & Haggar, M. S. (2013). Effectiveness of a motivational interviewing intervention on weight loss, physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk factors: A randomised controlled trial with a 12-month post-intervention follow-up. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10, 40.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-10-40 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Jakicic, J. M., Tate, D. F., Lang, W., Davis, K. K., Polzien, K., Rickman, A. D., ... Finkelstein, E. A. (2012). Effect of a stepped-care intervention approach on weight loss in adults: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA: Journal Of The American Medical Association, 307(24), 2617–2626.  doi:10.1001/jama.2012.6866
  20. Lilienthal, K. R., Pignol, A. E., Holm, J. E., & Vogeltanz-Holm, N. (2014). Telephone-based motivational interviewing to promote physical activity and stage of change progression in older adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 22(4), 527–535.  https://doi.org/10.1123/JAPA.2013-0056 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Mahoney, M. J., Moura, N. G., & Wade, T. C. (1973). Relative efficacy of self-reward, self-punishment, and self-monitoring techniques for weight loss. Journal of Consulting And Clinical Psychology, 40(3), 404–407.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0034565 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Marek, R. J., Heinberg, L. J., Lavery, M., Merrell Rish, J., & Ashton, K. (2016). A review of psychological assessment instruments for use in bariatric surgery evaluations. Psychological Assessment, 28(9), 1142–1157.  https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000286 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Miller, W. C. (1999). How effective are traditional dietary and exercise interventions for weight loss? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(8), 1129–1134. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10449014 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2013). Motivational interviewing: Helping people change. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  25. Mitchell, N., Catenacci, V., Wyatt, H. R., & Hill, J. O. (2011). Obesity: Overview of an epidemic. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 33(4), 717–732.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2011.08.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mullur, R., Liu, Y., & Brent, G. A. (2014). Thyroid hormone regulation of metabolism. Physiological Reviews, 94(2), 355–382.  https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00030.2013 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2012). What are the health risks of overweight and obesity? Retrieved from https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/obe/risks
  28. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (n.d.). Guide to behavior change. Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/behavior.htm
  29. National Health Service. (2014). Type 2 diabetes- Complications. Retrieved from http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Diabetes-type2/Pages/Complications.aspx
  30. Roberts, S. S. (2004). Defining success. Realistic goals are key to staying motivated about weight loss. Diabetes Forecast, 57(4), 52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Rollnick, S., Miller, W. R., & Butler, C. C. (2008). Motivational interviewing in healthcare: Helping patients change behavior. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  32. Schmid, S. M., Hallschmid, M., Jauch-Chara, K., Born, J., & Schultes, B. (2008). A single night of sleep deprivation increases ghrelin levels and feelings of hunger in normal-weight healthy men. Journal of Sleep Research, 17(3), 331–334.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2869.2008.00662.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Wong, E. Y., & Cheng, M. H. (2013). Effects of motivational interviewing to promote weight loss in obese children. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 22(17-18), 2519–2530.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.12098 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology and CounselingUniversity of Central ArkansasConwayUSA
  2. 2.Eastern Michigan UniversityYpsilantiUSA

Personalised recommendations