Advertisement

Hoarding Disorder

  • C. W. OngEmail author
  • E. B. Lee
  • M. P. Twohig
Chapter

Abstract

Hoarding disorder (HD) is characterized by acquiring large quantities of objects difficulty discarding, and/or keeping them organized. The diagnostic criteria identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), include (a) difficulty discarding possessions, regardless of their value; (b) a perceived need to save items and accompanying distress associated with discarding them; (c) an accumulation of items that congest active living areas; (d) hoarding that causes clinically significant distress or impairment; and (e) hoarding that is not due to another medical or mental health condition. Hoarding occurs in approximately 2–6% of the population, more often occurs among males, and is significantly more prevalent in older adults (Iervolino et al., 2009; Mueller, Mitchell, Crosby, Glaesmer, & de Zwaan, 2009; Samuels et al., 2008; Timpano et al., 2011). Hoarding symptoms usually begin early in life and are often chronic, sometimes becoming more severe over time (Tolin, Meunier, Frost, & Steketee, 2010).

Keywords

Hoarding disorder Clutter Difficulty discarding Excessive acquisition Cognitive behavioral therapy Exposure Cognitive restructuring Motivational interviewing 

References

  1. Abramowitz, J. S., Franklin, M. E., Schwartz, S. A., & Furr, J. M. (2003). Symptom presentation and outcome of cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(6), 1049–1057.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.71.6.1049 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Ayers, C. R., Iqbal, Y., & Strickland, K. (2013). Medical conditions in geriatric hoarding disorder patients. Aging & Mental Health, 18(2), 37–41.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2013.814105 Google Scholar
  4. Brakoulias, V., Eslick, G. D., & Starcevic, V. (2015). A meta-analysis of the response of pathological hoarding to pharmacotherapy. Psychiatry Research, 229(1–2), 272–276.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2015.07.019 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Frost, R. O., & Hristova, V. (2011). Assessment of hoarding. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67(5), 456–466.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20790 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Frost, R. O., Hristova, V., Steketee, G., & Tolin, D. F. (2013). Activities of daily living scale in hoarding disorder. Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, 2, 85–90.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocrd.2012.12.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Frost, R. O., Pekareva-Kochergina, A., & Maxner, S. (2011). The effectiveness of a biblio-based support group for hoarding disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49(10), 628–634.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2011.06.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Frost, R. O., Ruby, D., & Shuer, L. J. (2012). The buried in treasures workshop: Waitlist control trial of facilitated support groups for hoarding. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50(11), 661–667.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2012.08.004 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Frost, R. O., Steketee, G., & Greene, K. A. I. (2003). Cognitive and behavioral treatment of compulsive hoarding. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 3(3), 323–338.  https://doi.org/10.1093/brief-treatment/mhg024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Frost, R. O., Steketee, G., & Grisham, J. (2004). Measurement of compulsive hoarding: Saving inventory-revised. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42(10), 1163–1182.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2003.07.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Frost, R. O., Steketee, G., & Tolin, D. F. (2011). Comorbidity in hoarding disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 28(10), 876–884.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20861 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Frost, R. O., Steketee, G., Tolin, D. F., & Renaud, S. (2008). Development and validation of the clutter image rating. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 30(3), 193–203.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-007-9068-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Frost, R. O., Tolin, D. F., & Maltby, N. (2010). Insight-related challenges in the treatment of hoarding. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 17(4), 404–413.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2009.07.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Iervolino, A. C., Perroud, N., Fullana, M. A., Guipponi, M., Cherkas, L., Collier, D. A., & Mataix-Cols, D. (2009). Prevalence and heritability of compulsive hoarding: A twin study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(10), 1156–1161.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.08121789 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2002). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change (2nd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  16. Mueller, A., Mitchell, J. E., Crosby, R. D., Glaesmer, H., & de Zwaan, M. (2009). The prevalence of compulsive hoarding and its association with compulsive buying in a German population-based sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(8), 705–709.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2009.04.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Muroff, J. (2011). Thinking outside the box: Novel delivery methods for treating hoarding. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 4(3), 280–296.  https://doi.org/10.1521/ijct.2011.4.3.280 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Muroff, J., Steketee, G., Bratiotis, C., & Ross, A. (2012). Group cognitive and behavioral therapy and bibliotherapy for hoarding: A pilot trial. Depression and Anxiety, 29(7), 597–604.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.21923 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Muroff, J., Steketee, G., Himle, J., & Frost, R. (2010). Delivery of internet treatment for compulsive hoarding (D.I.T.C.H.) Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(1), 79–85.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2009.09.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Nordsletten, A. E., Fernández de la Cruz, L., Pertusa, A., Reichenberg, A., Hatch, S. L., & Mataix-Cols, D. (2013). The Structured Interview for Hoarding Disorder (SIHD): Development, usage and further validation. Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, 2(3), 346–350.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocrd.2013.06.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rodriguez, C. I., Bender, J., Jr., Morrison, S., Mehendru, R., Tolin, D. F., & Simpson, H. B. (2013). Does extended release methylphenidate help adults with hoarding disorder? A case series. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 33(3), 444–447.  https://doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0b013e318290115e CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Samuels, J. F., Bienvenu, O. J., Grados, M. A., Cullen, B., Riddle, M. A., Liang, K. Y., … Nestadt, G. (2008). Prevalence and correlates of hoarding behavior in a community-based sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(7), 836–844.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2008.04.004 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Saxena, S., & Sumner, J. (2014). Venlafaxine extended-release treatment of hoarding disorder. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 29, 266–273.  https://doi.org/10.1097/YIC.0000000000000036 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Steketee, G., Frost, R. O., & Kim, H.-J. (2001). Hoarding by elderly people. Health & Social Work, 26(3), 176–184.  https://doi.org/10.1093/hsw/26.3.176 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Steketee, G., & Tolin, D. F. (2011). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for hoarding in the context of contamination fears. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67(5), 485–496.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20793 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Timpano, K. R., Exner, C., Glaesmer, H., Rief, W., Keshaviah, A., Brähler, E., & Wilhelm, S. (2011). The epidemiology of the proposed DSM-5 hoarding disorder: Exploration of the acquisition specifier, associated features, and distress. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72(6), 780–786.  https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.10m06380 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Tolin, D. F., Frost, R. O., Steketee, G., Gray, K. D., & Fitch, K. E. (2008). The economic and social burden of compulsive hoarding. Psychiatry Research, 160(2), 200–211.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2007.08.008
  28. Tolin, D. F., Frost, R. O., & Steketee, G. (2010). A brief interview for assessing compulsive hoarding: The Hoarding Rating Scale-Interview. Psychiatry Research, 178(1), 147–152.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2009.05.001 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Tolin, D. F., Frost, R. O., Steketee, G., & Fitch, K. E. (2008). Family burden of compulsive hoarding: Results of an internet survey. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(3), 334–344.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2007.12.008 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Tolin, D. F., Meunier, S. A., Frost, R. O., & Steketee, G. (2010). Course of compulsive hoarding and its relationship to life events. Depression and Anxiety, 27(9), 829–838.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20684 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Utah State UniversityLoganUSA

Personalised recommendations