Advertisement

This Hard Place and that Hard Terrain: Emerging Perspectives on Media and Cultural Studies on or in Zimbabwe

  • Nhamo Anthony Mhiripiri
Chapter

Abstract

Zimbabwe has produced an exceptional number of post-graduate journalism, media and cultural studies scholars of note since the mid-1990s. Many amongst those prominent from the first generation of these scholars spent their formative years at the University of Zimbabwe (UZ) before migrating to European, South African and American universities. A considerable number attained (post-)doctoral qualifications during the so-called crisis years that coincide with former President Robert Mugabe and his ruling Zimbabwe African National Union (Patriotic Front)’s (ZANU-PF) land reform, ostensibly to correct historical colonial injustices of land dispossession. The land policy, amongst other factors, triggered economic decline (Bond & Manyanya, 2003). Local and international critics accused Mugabe’s government of political repression, including human and media rights violations; culminating in the imposition of targeted sanctions on Zimbabwe by the UK, the USA, the European Union, and many other Western countries. This chapter is an evaluative treatment of the work of UZ media studies graduates who became prominent media and cultural scholars on Zimbabwean media and cultural phenomena after graduating since 1993. Many of these young scholars left the country for greener pastures or to escape the decline, and to work in the diaspora.

References

  1. Abbas, M. A., & Erni, J. N. (2004). International cultural studies: An anthology. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  2. Banda, F., Beukes-Amiss, C. M., Bosch, T., Mano, W., McLean, P., & Steenveld, L. (2007). Contextualising journalism education and training in Southern Africa. Equid Novi: African Journalism Studies, 28(1 & 2), 156–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bond, P., & Manyanya, M. (2003). Zimbabwe’s plunge: Exhausted nationalism, neoliberalism and the search for social justice. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press.Google Scholar
  4. Chari, T. (2013). New communication technologies and journalism ethics in Zimbabwe: Practices and malpractices. Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 3(2), 112–136.Google Scholar
  5. Chiumbu, S. (2004). Redefining the national agenda: Media and identity-challenges of building a new Zimbabwe. In H. Melber (Ed.), Media, public discourse and political contestation in Zimbabwe (pp. 29–35). Goteborg: Elanders Infologistics Vast.Google Scholar
  6. Chiumbu, S. (2010). Media, alternativism and power: The political economy of community media in South Africa. In N. Hyde-Clarke (Ed.), The citizen in communication: Re-visiting traditional, new and community media practices in South Africa. Claremont: Juta.Google Scholar
  7. Chuma, W. (2010). Reforming the media in Zimbabwe: Critical reflections. In D. Moyo & W. Chuma (Eds.), Media policy in a changing Southern Africa: Critical reflections on media reforms in a global age. Pretoria: Unisa.Google Scholar
  8. Chuma, W. (2013). The role of radio and mobile phones in conflict situations: The case of the 2008 Zimbabwe elections and xenophobic attacks in Cape Town, Nokoko 3. Institute of African Studies, Carleton University.Google Scholar
  9. Chuma, W. (2016). Between ‘bottom up’ journalism and social activism in unequal societies: The case of Groundup in South Africa. In B. Mutsvairo (Ed.), Perspectives on participatory politics and citizen journalism in a networked Africa: A connected continent. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  10. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Herder and Herder.Google Scholar
  11. Gramsci, A. (2007). Selections from the prison notebooks. London: Lawrence and Wishart.Google Scholar
  12. Hayek, F. A. (2006). The constitution of liberty. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. IMPI. (2014). IMPI Report of the official Inquiry into the state of the information and media industry in Zimbabwe (pp. 1–666). Harare: Ministry of Information, Media and Broadcasting Services.Google Scholar
  14. Kwaramba, A. (1997). Popular music and society: The language of protest in Chimurenga music: The case of Thomas Mapfumo in Zimbabwe. Department of Media and Communication, University of Oslo.Google Scholar
  15. Mamdani, M. (2007). Scholars in the marketplace: The dilemmas of neoliberal reform at Makerere University 1989–2000. Dakar: Codesria.Google Scholar
  16. Mandava, P. (2004). Towards democratized airwaves: Zimbabwe’s experience of broadcasting policy reform and implications for media development. The Dyke, 1(1), 45–58.Google Scholar
  17. Mano, W. (2005). Editorial. Westminster Papers in Communication and Culture, 2, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mano, W. (2010). Popular music as journalism in Africa: Historical and contemporary dimensions. In H. Wasserman (Ed.), Popular media, democracy and development in Africa. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Mano, W. (2011). Popular music as journalism in Africa: Issues and contexts. In H. Wasserman (Ed.), Popular media, democracy and development in Africa (pp. 91–104). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Mhiripiri, N. A. (2015). Narratives of the Zimbabwe crisis, national sovereignty and human and media rights violations. In S. Adejumobi (Ed.), National democratic reforms in Africa: Changes and challenges. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  21. Mhiripiri, N. A., & Chikakano, J. (2017). @Criminal defamation, the criminalisation of expression, media, and information dissemination in the digital age: A legal and ethical perspective. In N. A. Mhiripiri & T. Chari (Eds.), Media law, ethics and policy in the digital age (pp. 1–24). Hershey: IGI Global.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mhiripiri, N. A., & Moyo, B. S. (2016). A resilient unwanted civil society: The Gays and Lesbians of Zimbabwe’s use of Facebook as alternative public sphere in a dominant homophobic society. In B. Mutsvairo (Ed.), Digital activism in the social media era: Critical reflections on emerging trends in sub-Sahara Africa. Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  23. Mhiripiri, N. A., & Mutsvairo, B. (2014). Social media, new ICTs and the challenges facing the Zimbabwe democratic process. In Crisis management: Concepts, methodologies, tools and applications., Vol. 111, Information Resources Management Association (pp. 1281–1301). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mhiripiri, N. A., & Ureke, O. (2016). Mobile journalism, cellphilms and the use of the StoryMaker multimedia software at a Zimbabwean Media Training University. In L. Briz-Ponce, J. A. Juanes-Méndez, & F. J. García-Peñalvo (Eds.), Handbook of research on mobile devices and applications in higher education. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.Google Scholar
  25. Mkandawire, T. (2005). African intellectuals and nationalism. In T. Mkandawire (Ed.), African intellectuals: Rethinking politics, language, gender and development. Dakar: Codesria.Google Scholar
  26. Moyana, T. (1989). Education, liberation and the creative act. Harare: Zimbabwe Publishing House.Google Scholar
  27. Moyo, D. (2009). Citizen journalism and the parallel market of information in Zimbabwe’s 2008 election. Journalism Studies, 10(4), 551–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Moyo, D. (2010). We are all storytellers: Citizen journalism in the age of digital ‘pavement radio’, the citizen in communication: Re-visiting traditional, new and community media practices in South Africa. Claremont: Juta.Google Scholar
  29. Moyo, D., & Chuma, W. (2010). Media policy in a changing Southern Africa: Critical reflections on media reforms in a global age. Pretoria: Unisa.Google Scholar
  30. Moyo, L. (2012). Community radio and cultural citizenship: Reflections on Radio Islam and democratic citizenship in South Africa. In J. Gordon (Ed.), Community radio in the twenty-first century. Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  31. Moyo, L. (2013a). The digital turn in radio: A critique of institutional and organizational modeling of new radio practices and cultures. Telematics and Informatics, 30, 214–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Moyo, L. (2013b). Introduction: Critical reflections on technological convergence on radio and the emerging digital cultures and practices. Telematics and Informatics, 30, 211–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Muller, J., Tomaselli, K., & Tomaselli, R. (1989). The lineage of contemporary cultural studies: A brief historical examination. In K. Tomaselli (Ed.), Rethinking culture. Bellville: Anthropos Publishers.Google Scholar
  34. Ndlela, N. (2005). The coverage of the Zimbabwean crisis in the Norwegian media. Westminster Papers in Communication and Culture, (Special Issue), 1–7.Google Scholar
  35. Ranger, O. T. (2005). The rise of patriotic journalism in Zimbabwe and its possible implications. Westminster Papers in Communication and Culture, (Special Issue), 8–17.Google Scholar
  36. Shepperson, A., & Tomaselli, K. (2004). Cultural studies is the crisis: Culturalism and dynamic justice. Cultural Studies Critical Methodologies, 4(2), 257–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tomaselli, K. (1998). Recovering praxis: Cultural studies in Africa. European Journal of cultural studies, 1(3), 387–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tomaselli, K. G. (2012). Alter-egos: Cultural and media studies. Critical Arts: South-North Cultural and Media Studies, 26(1), 14–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tomaselli, K., Mboti, N., & Rønning, H. (2012). South-North perspectives: The development of cultural and media studies in Southern Africa. Media Culture and Society, 35(1), 36–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tomaselli, K. G. (2016). Ubuntu and intercultural communication: Power, inclusion and exclusion. Intercultural Communication Studies, XXV(2), 1–13.Google Scholar
  41. Wallerstein, I. (1999). The end of the world as we know it: Social science in the twenty-first century. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  42. Willems, W. (2014). Provincializing hegemonic histories of media and communication studies: Towards a genealogy of epistemic resistance in Africa. Communication Theory, 24, 415–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zeleza, P. T. (2005). The academic diaspora and knowledge production in and on Africa: What role for CODESRIA? In T. Mkandawire (Ed.), African intellectuals: Rethinking politics, language, gender and development. Dakar: Codesria.Google Scholar
  44. Zhuwarara, R. (2001). Introduction to Zimbabwean literature in English. Harare: College Press.Google Scholar
  45. Zhuwarara, R., Gecau, K., & Drag, M. (1997). Media, democratisation and Identity. Oslo: University of Oslo.Google Scholar
  46. Zimunya, M. (1982). Those years of drought and hunger: The birth of African fiction in English in Zimbabwe. Gweru: Mambo Press.Google Scholar
  47. Zimunya, M. B. (1993). Music in Zimbabwean history: Music as cultural communication. In H. Arntsen (Ed.), Media, culture and development 1. Oslo: Department of Media and Communication.Google Scholar
  48. Zimunya, M. (1994a, March 16). Music, culture and identity. An unpublished paper presented for ACM students, University of Zimbabwe.Google Scholar
  49. Zimunya, M. (1994b). Music as historical communication. In H. Arntsen (Ed.), Media, culture and development. Oslo: Department of Media and Communication.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nhamo Anthony Mhiripiri
    • 1
  1. 1.Media and Society Studies DepartmentMidlands State University (MSU)GweruZimbabwe

Personalised recommendations