The Role of Sex and Sex Hormones in Regulating Obesity-Induced Inflammation

  • Mita Varghese
  • Cameron Griffin
  • Kanakadurga Singer
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1043)

Abstract

Metabolic and non-metabolic complications due to obesity are becoming more prevalent, yet our understanding of the mechanisms driving these is not. This is due to individual risk factor variability making it difficult to predict disease outcomes such as diabetes and insulin resistance. Gender is a critical factor in obesity outcomes with women having more adiposity but reduced metabolic complications compared to men. The role of immune system activation during obesity is an emerging field that links adiposity to metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, evidence from animal models suggests that sex differences exist in immune responses and, therefore, could be a possible mechanism leading to sex differences in metabolic disease. While there is still much to learn in the area of sex-differences research, this chapter will review the current knowledge and literature detailing the role of sex and sex hormones on adiposity and metabolically induced inflammation in obesity.

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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mita Varghese
    • 1
  • Cameron Griffin
    • 1
  • Kanakadurga Singer
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable DiseasesUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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