Testosterone Therapy and Glucose Homeostasis in Men with Testosterone Deficiency (Hypogonadism)

  • Farid Saad
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1043)


Since the early 1990s, it has been recognized that testosterone (T) levels are lower in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared with nondiabetic men (controls). Hypogonadism has been reported in approximately 50% of men with T2DM with robust correlations with measures of obesity, such as waist circumference and body mass index (BMI). In longitudinal studies, hypogonadism has been identified as a predictor of incident T2DM. Experimental withdrawal of T led to acute decreased insulin sensitivity, which can be reversed by normalization of T concentrations. Androgen deprivation therapy, commonly used in men with advanced prostate cancer, increases the risk of incident T2DM significantly.

While short-term studies of T therapy in hypogonadal men with T2DM show only minor effects, long-term administration of T leads to meaningful and sustained improvements of glycemic control with parallel reductions in body weight and waist circumference. The more insulin-resistant and obese a patient is at the time of initiation of T therapy, the more improvements are noted. The observed effects are likely mediated by the increase in lean body mass invariably achieved by T therapy, as well as the improvement in energy and motivation, referred to as the psychotropic effects of T. As recommended by various guidelines, measuring T levels and, if indicated, restoring men’s T levels into the normal physiological range can have a substantial impact on ameliorating T2DM in hypogonadal men.


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Global Medical Affairs AndrologyBayer AGBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Gulf Medical University School of MedicineAjmanUnited Arab Emirates

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