Results of Anatomical Shoulder Arthroplasty

  • Clemens Abel
  • Frank GohlkeEmail author


Results of anatomical shoulder arthroplasty depend on numerous factors: patient-related, surgeon-related and, most importantly, aetiology-related. The precondition of the rotator cuff and the amount of glenoid bone loss and deformity are essential for longevity of the implant. In cases of centred osteoarthritis and intact rotator cuff without advanced fatty muscle infiltration good or excellent functional results can be expected for the majority of patients with low complication rates for the first 10 years after surgery.

The trend to preserve bone stock using stemless humeral components has not yet produced differences in clinical outcome or loosening rates in comparison to stemmed implants yet. However, this needs more long-term survivorship data. While improvements have been made on the humeral component side, glenoid fixation still seems to be the most important limiting factor for implant survival in the mid- to long-term. Glenoid loosening is still the most common failure mode: caused by aseptic loosening of cemented polyethylene glenoid components after 5–10 years and in metal-backed components due to increased polyethylene wear and dissociation after 4–6 years. Although considerable thought has been spent on the design of the glenoid component, it does not seem to have influenced the long-term survival and revision rate significantly. A new approach to glenoid resurfacing has to overcome this crucial issue.


Anatomic shoulder arthroplasty Glenoid component Humeral component Survivalship Patient related outcome factors Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Glenoid component design Status of rotator cuff Humeral stem length Metal backed glenoid 


  1. 1.
    Australian Orthopaedic Association national joint replacement registry annual report 2012.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barlow JD, Yuan BJ, Schleck CD, Harmsen WS, Cofield RH, Sperling JW. Shoulder arthroplasty for rheumatoid arthritis: 303 consecutive with minimum 5-year follow-up. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2014;23(6):791–9. Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bohsali KI, Wirth MA, Rockwood CA Jr. Complications of total shoulder arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88(10):2279–92.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boileau P, Walch G. Adaptabilité et modularité au cours des prostheses d’épaule [Adaptability and modulation in shoulder prosthesis]. Acta Orthop Belg. 1995;61(Suppl 1):49–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boileau P, Walch G. The three-dimensional geometry of the proximal humerus. Implications for surgical technique and prosthetic design. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1997;79(5):857–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boileau P, Moineau G, Morin-Salvo N, Avidor C, Godenèche A, Lévigne C, Baba M, Walch G. Metal-backed glenoid implant with polyethylene insert is not a viable long-term therapeutic option. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2015;24(10):1534–43. Epub 2015 Jul 27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boileau P, Baba M, Moineau G, Morin-Salvo N, Avidor C, Godenèche A, Lévigne C, Walch G. Response to Katz et al: the weak link in metal-backed glenoid implants is the polyethylene. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2016;25(12):e396–8. Epub 2016 Oct 14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Carter MJ, Mikuls TR, Nayak S, Fehringer EV, Michaud K. Impact of total shoulder arthroplasty on generic and shoulder-specific health-related quality-of-life measures: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94(17):e127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Carroll RM, Izquierdo R, Vazquez M, Blaine TA, Levine WN, Bigliani LU. Conversion of painful hemiarthroplasty to total shoulder arthroplasty: long-term results. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2004;13(6):599–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen X, Reddy AS, Kontaxis A, Choi DS, Wright T, Dines DM, Warren RF, Berhouet J, Gulotta LV. Version correction via eccentric reaming compromises remaining bone quality in B2 Glenoids: a computational study. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2017;475(12):3090–9. Epub 2017 Sep 25CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cil A, Veillette CJ, Sanchez-Sotelo J, Sperling JW, Schleck CD, Cofield RH. Survivorship of the humeral component in shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2010;19(1):143–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Clavert P, Millett PJ, Warner JJ. Glenoid resurfacing: what are the limits to asymmetric reaming for posterior erosion? J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2007;16:843–8. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Clark JC, Simon P, Clark RE, Christmas KN, Allert JW, Streit JJ, Mighell MA, Hess A, Stone J, Frankle MA. The influence of patient- and surgeon-specific factors on operative duration and early postoperative outcomes in shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2017;26(6):1011–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Clitherow HD, Frampton CM, Astley TM. Effect of glenoid cementation on total shoulder arthroplasty for degenerative arthritis of the shoulder: a review of the New Zealand National Joint Registry. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2014;23(6):775–81. Epub 2013 Nov 23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cofield RH. Total shoulder arthroplasty with the Neer prosthesis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1984;66(6):899–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cofield RH, Edgerton BC. Total shoulder arthroplasty: complications and revision surgery. Instr Course Lect. 1990;39:449–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Constant CR, Gerber C, Emery RJ, Søjbjerg JO, Gohlke F, Boileau PA. Review of the constant score: modifications and guidelines for its use. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2008;17(2):355–61. Epub 2008 Jan 22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Churchill RS, Athwal GS. Stemless shoulder arthroplasty-current results and designs. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2016;9(1):10–6. Scholar
  19. 19.
    Churchill RS, Zellmer C, Zimmers HJ, Ruggero R. Clinical and radiographic analysis of a partially cemented glenoid implant: five-year minimum follow-up. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2010;19:1091–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Denard PJ, Raiss P, Sowa B, Walch G. Mid- to long-term follow-up of total shoulder arthroplasty using a keeled glenoid in young adults with primary glenohumeral arthritis. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2013;22(7):894–900. Epub 2013 Jan 9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Deshmukh AV, Koris M, Zurakowski D, Thornhill TS. Total shoulder arthroplasty: long-term survivorship, functional outcome, and quality of life. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2005;14(5):471–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Edwards TB, Boulahia A, Kempf JF, Boileau P, Nemoz C, Walch G. The influence of rotator cuff disease on the results of shoulder arthroplasty for primary osteoarthritis: results of a multicenter study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2002;84-A:2240–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Farng E, Zingmond D, Krenek L, Soohoo NF. Factors predicting complication rates after primary shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2011;20(4):557–63. Epub 2011 Feb 16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Favard L, Berhouet J, Walch G, Chaoui J, Lévigne C. Superior glenoid inclination and glenoid bone loss: definition, assessment, biomechanical consequences, and surgical options. Orthopade. 2017;46(12):1015–21. Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fevang BT, Lie SA, Havelin LI, Skredderstuen A, Furnes O. Risk factors for revision after shoulder arthroplasty: 1,825 shoulder arthroplasties from the Norwegian arthroplasty register. Acta Orthop. 2009;80(1):83–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fevang L, Nystad TW, Skredderstuen A, Furnes ON, Havelin LI. Improved survival for anatomical total shoulder prostheses. Acta Orthop. 2015;86(1):63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fox TJ, Cil A, Sperling JW, Sanchez-Sotelo J, Schleck CD, Cofield RH. Survival of the glenoid component in shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2009;18:859–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fox TJ, Foruria AM, Klika BJ, Sperling JW, Schleck CD, Cofield RH. Radiographic survival in total shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2013;22(9):1221–7. Epub 2013 Mar 6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gazielly DF, Scarlet MM, Verborgt O. Long-term survival of the glenoid components in total shoulder replacement for arthritis. Int Orthop. 2015;39(2):285–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Goldberg SS, Bell JE, Kim HJ, Bak SF, Levine WN, Bigliani LU. Hemiarthroplasty for the rotator cuff-deficient shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90(3):554–9. Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gohlke F. Clinical and radiographic results of shoulder arthroplasty in rheumatoid arthritis. In: Walch G, Boileau P, Molé D, editors. Shoulder prosthesis – two to ten year follow-up. Montpellier S: Sauramps Medical; 2001. p. 177–82.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gregory TM, Boukebous B, Gregory J, Pierrart J, Masemjean E. Short, medium and long term complications after total anatomical shoulder arthroplasty. Open Orthopa J. 2017;11(Suppl-6 , M6):1133–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hammond JW, Queale WS, Kim TK, McFarland EG. Surgeon experience and clinical and economic outcomes for shoulder arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003;85-A(12):2318–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hasan, et al. Characteristics of unsatisfactory shoulder arthroplasties. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2002;11:431–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hawi N, Tauber M, Messina MJ, Habermeyer P, Martetschläger F. Anatomic stemless shoulder arthroplasty and related outcomes: a systematic review. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016;17(1):376. Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hawi N, Magosch P, Tauber M, Lichtenberg S, Habermeyer P. Nine-year outcome after anatomic stemless shoulder prosthesis: clinical and radiologic results. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2017;26(9):1609–15. Epub 2017 Apr 11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hill JM, Norris TR. Long-term results of total shoulder arthroplasty following bone grafting of the glenoid. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2001;83(6):877–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ho JC, Sabesan VJ, Iannotti JP. Glenoid component retroversion is associated with osteolysis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013;95:e82. Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hsu JE, Ricchetti ET, Huffman GR, Iannotti JP, Glaser DL. Addressing glenoid bone deficiency and asymmetric posterior erosion in shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2013;22(9):1298–308. Epub 2013 Jun 22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hsu JE, Russ SM, Somerson JS, Tang A, Warme WJ, Matsen FA. Is the simple shoulder test a valid outcome instrument for shoulder arthroplasty? J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2017;26(10):1693–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hussey MM, Steen BM, Cusick MC, Cox JL, Marberry ST, Simon P, Cottrell BJ, Santoni BG, Frankle MA. The effects of glenoid wear patterns on patients with osteoarthritis in total shoulder arthroplasty: an assessment of outcomes and value. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2015;24(5):682–90. Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hyun YS, Huri G, Garbis NG, McFarland EG. Uncommon indications for reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Surg. 2013;5(4):243–55. Epub 2013 Nov 18CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Iannotti JP, Norris TR. Influence of preoperative factors on outcome of shoulder arthroplasty for glenohumeral osteoarthritis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003;85-A(2):251–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Iannotti JP, Weiner S, Rodriguez E, Subhas N, Patterson TE, Jun BJ, Ricchetti ET. Three-dimensional imaging and templating improve glenoid implant positioning. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2015;97(8):651–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jain N, Pietrobon R, Hocker S, Guller U, Shankar A, Higgins LD. The relationship between surgeon and hospital volume and outcomes for shoulder arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004;86-A(3):496–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Johansson L, Hailer NP, Rahme H. High incidence of periprosthetic joint infection with propionibacterium acnes after the use of a stemless shoulder prosthesis with metaphyseal screw fixation - a retrospective cohort study of 241 patients propionibacter infections after eclipse TSA. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017;18(1):203. Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kilian CM, Press CM, Smith KM, O’Connor DP, Morris BJ, Elkousy HA, Gartsman GM, Edwards TB. Radiographic and clinical comparison of pegged and keeled glenoid components using modern cementing techniques: midterm results of a prospective randomized study. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2017;26(12):2078–85. Epub 2017 Sep 13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Labek G, Thaler M, Janda W, Agreiter M, Stöckl B. Revision rates after total joint replacement: cumulative results from worldwide joint register datasets. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2011a;93(3):293–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Labek G, Neumann D, Agreiter M, Schuh R, Böhler N. Impact of implant developers on published outcome and reproducibility of cohort-based clinical studies in arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011b;93(Supl 3):55–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lebon J, Delclaux S, Bonnevialle N, Rongières M, Bonnevialle P, Mansat P. French Society for Shoulder, Elbow (SOFEC). Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2014;100(6Suppl):S327–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Levine WN, Djurasovic M, Glasson JM, Pollock RG, Flatow EL, Bigliani LU. Hemiarthroplasty for glenohumeral osteoarthritis: results correlated to degree of glenoid wear. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 1997;6(5):449–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Levy O, Copeland SA. Cementless surface replacement arthroplasty of the shoulder. 5- to 10-year results with the Copeland mark-2 prosthesis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2001;83(2):213–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Levy O, Funk L, Sforza G, Copeland SA. Copeland surface replacement arthroplasty of the shoulder in rheumatoid arthritis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004;86-A(3):512–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mansat P, Coutié AS, Bonnevialle N, Rongières M, Mansat M, Bonnevialle P. Resurfacing humeral prosthesis: do we really reconstruct the anatomy? J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2013;22(5):612–9. Epub 2012 Nov 11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Matsen FA 3rd, Tang A, Russ SM, Hsu JE. Relationship between patient-reported assessment of shoulder function and objective range-of-motion measurements. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2017;99(5):417–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Merolla G, Ciaramella G, Fabbri E, Walch G, Paladini P, Porcellini G. Total shoulder replacement using a bone ingrowth central peg polyethylene glenoid component: a prospective clinical and computed tomography study with short- to mid-term follow-up. Int Orthop. 2016;40:2355–63. Scholar
  57. 57.
    Millett PJ, Yen YM, Price CS, Horan MP, van der Meijden OA, Elser F. Propionibacterium acnes infection as an occult cause of postoperative shoulder pain: a case series. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011;469(10):2824–30. Epub 2011 Jan 15)CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Moeckel BH, Dines DM, Warren RF, Altchek DW. Modular hemiarthroplasty for fractures of the proximal part of the humerus. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1992;74(6):884–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Neer CS. Articular replacement for the humeral head. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1955;37:215–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Neer CS. Replacement arthroplasty for glenohumeral osteoarthritis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1974;56(1):1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Nuttall D, Haines JF, Trail IA. The early migration of a partially cemented fluted pegged glenoid component using radiostereometric analysis. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2012;21:1191–6. Scholar
  62. 62.
    Papadonikolakis A, Matsen FA 3rd. Metal-backed glenoid components have a higher rate of failure and fail by different modes in comparison with all-polyethylene components: a systematic review. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014;96(12):1041–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Radnay CS, Setter KJ, Chambers L, Levine WN, Bigliani LU, Ahmad CS. Total shoulder replacement compared with humeral head replacement for the treatment of primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis: a systematic review. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2007;16(4):396–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Raiss P, Bruckner T, Rickert M, Walch G. Longitudinal observational study of total shoulder replacements with cement: fifteen to twenty-year follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014;96:198–205. Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rees JL, Dawson J, Hand GC, Cooper C, Judge A, Price AJ, Beard DJ, Carr AJ. The use of patient-reported outcome measures and patient satisfaction ratings to assess outcome in hemiarthroplasty of the shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2010;92(8):1107–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Rice RS, Sperling JW, Miletti J, Schleck C, Cofield RH. Augmented glenoid component for bone deficiency in shoulder arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466(3):579–83. Epub 2008 Jan 8CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rosenberg N, Neumann L, Modi A, Mersich IJ, Wallace AW. Improvements in survival of the uncemented Nottingham total shoulder prosthesis: a prospective comparative study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2007;8:76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Schoch B, Schleck C, Cofield RH, Sperling JW. Shoulder arthroplasty in patients younger than 50 years: minimum 20-years follow-up. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2015;24(5):705–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sims MT, Detweiler BN, Scott JT, Howard BM, Detten GR, Vassar M. Inconsistent selection of outcomes and measurement devices found in shoulder arthroplasty research: an analysis of studies on PLoS One. 2017;12(11):e0187865. eCollection 2017.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Singh JA, Sperling JW, Cofield RH. Revision surgery following total shoulder arthroplasty: analysis of 2588 shoulders over three decades (1976 to 2008). J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2011;93(11):1513–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Søjbjerg JO, Frich LH, Johannsen HV, Sneppen O. Late results of total shoulder replacement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1999;366:39–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Somerson JS, Matsen FA 3rd. Functional outcomes of the ream-and-run shoulder arthroplasty: a concise follow-up of a previous report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2017;99(23):1999–2003. Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sowa B, Bochenek M, Bülhoff M, Zeifang F, Loew M, Bruckner T, Raiss P. The medium- and long-term outcome of total shoulder arthroplasty for primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis in middle-aged patients. Bone Joint J. 2017;99-B(7):939–43. Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sperling JW, Cofield RH, Rowland CM. Minimum fifteen-year follow-up of Neer hemiarthroplasty and total shoulder arthroplasty in patients aged fifty years or younger. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2004;13:604–13. Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sperling JW, Cofield RH, Schleck CD, Harmsen WS. Total shoulder arthroplasty versus hemiarthroplasty for rheumatoid arthritis of the shoulder: results of 303 consecutive cases. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2007;16(6):683–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Steinmann SP, Cofield RH. Bone grafting for glenoid deficiency in total shoulder replacement. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2000;9(5):361–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Strauss EJ, Roche C, Flurin PH, Wright T, Zuckerman JD. The glenoid in shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2009;18(5):819–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Szabo I, Buscayret F, Edwards TB, Nemoz C, O’Connor DP, Boileau P, et al. Radiographic comparison of two glenoid preparation techniques in total shoulder arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2005;431:104–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Swieszkowski W, Bednarz P, Prendergast PJ. Contact stresses in the glenoid component in total shoulder arthroplasty. Proc Inst Mech Eng H. 2003;217(1):49–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Taunton MJ, AL MI, Sperling JW, Cofield RH. Total shoulder arthroplasty with a metal-backed, bone-ingrowth glenoid component. Medium to long-term results. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90(10):2180–8. Scholar
  81. 81.
    Trail IA, Nuttall D. The results of shoulder arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2002;84(8):1121–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Torchia ME. Total shoulder arthroplasty with the Neer prosthesis: long-term results. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 1997;6(6):495–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    van den Bekerom MP, Geervliet PC, Somford MP, van den Borne MP, Boer R. Total shoulder arthroplasty versus hemiarthroplasty for glenohumeral arthritis: a systematic review of the literature at long-term follow-up. Int J Shoulder Surg. 2013;7(3):110–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    van de Sande MA, Brand R, Rosig PM. Indications, complications and results of shoulder arthroplasty. Scand J Rheumatol. 2006;35(6):426–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Voorde PC, Rasmussen JV, Olsen BS, Brorson S. Resurfacing shoulder arthroplasty for the treatment of severe rheumatoid arthritis: outcome in 167 patients from the Danish shoulder registry. Acta Orthop. 2015;86(3):293–7. Epub 2015 Feb 12CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Vuillermin CB, Trump ME, Barwood SA, Hoy GA. Catastrophic failure of a low profile metal-backed glenoid component after total shoulder arthroplasty. Int J Shoulder Surg. 2015;9(4):121–7. Scholar
  87. 87.
    Walch G, Boulahia A, Boileau P, Kempf JF. Primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis: clinical and radiographic classification. The Aequalis Group. Acta Orthop Belg. 1998;64(Suppl 2):46–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Walch G, Edwards TB, Boulahia A, Boileau P, Mole D, Adeleine P. The influence of glenohumeral prosthetic mismatch on glenoid radiolucent lines: results of a multicenter study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2002a;84-A(12):2186–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Walch G, Moraga C, Young A, Castellanos-Rosas J. Results of anatomic nonconstrained prosthesis in primary osteoarthritis with biconcave glenoid. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2012a;21:1526–33. Scholar
  90. 90.
    Walch G, Young AA, Boileau P, Loew M, Gazielly D, Mole D. Patterns of loosening of polyethylene keeled glenoid components after shoulder arthroplasty for primary osteoarthritis: results of a multicenter study with more than five years of follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012b;94:145–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Walch G, Young AA, Melis B, Gazielly D, Loew M, Boileau P. Results of a convex-back cemented keeled glenoid component in primary osteoarthritis: multicenter study with a follow-up greater than 5 years. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2011;20(3):385–94. Epub 2010 Nov 5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Walch G, Ascani C, Boulahia A, Nove-Josserand L, Edwards TB. Static posterior subluxation of the humeral head: an unrecognized entity responsible for glenohumeral osteoarthritis in the young adult. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2002b;11:309–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Werner BS, Gohlke F. Cementless humeral head replacement for dislocation arthropathy of the shoulder joint. Orthopade. 2010;39(11):1036–43. Scholar
  94. 94.
    Werner BS, Stehle J, Abdelkawi A, Plumhoff P, Hudek R, Gohlke F. Progressive glenoid bone loss caused by erosion in humeral head resurfacing. Orthopade. 2017;46(12):1028–33. Scholar
  95. 95.
    Werthel JD, Lonjon G, Jo S, Cofield R, Sperling JW, Elhassan BT. Long-term outcomes of cemented versus cementless humeral components in arthroplasty of the shoulder: a propensity score-matched analysis. Bone Joint J. 2017;99-B(5):666–73. Scholar
  96. 96.
    Williams GR Jr, Rockwood CA Jr. Hemiarthroplasty in rotator curr-defficient shoulders. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 1996;5(5):362–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wirth MA, Rockwood CA. Complications of shoulder arthroplasty. Clin Orth Relat Res. 1994;307:47–69.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wirth MA, Loredo R, Garcia G, Rockwood CA, Southworth C, Iannotti JP. Total shoulder arthroplasty with an all-polyethylene pegged bone-ingrowth glenoid component: a clinical and radiographic outcome study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94:260–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Yian EH, Werner CM, Nyffeler RW, Pfirrmann CW, Ramappa A, Sukthankar A, Gerber C. Radiographic and computed tomography analysis of cemented pegged polyethylene glenoid components in total shoulder replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87(9):1928–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Young A, Walch G, Boileau P, Favard L, Gohlke F, Loew M, Molé D. A multicentre study of the long-term results of using a flat-back polyethylene glenoid component in shoulder replacement for primary osteoarthritis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2011;93(2):210–6. Scholar
  101. 101.
    Young AA, Walch G, Pape G, Gohlke F, Favard L. Secondary rotator cuff dysfunction following total shoulder arthroplasty for primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis: results of a multicenter study with more than five years of follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94(8):685–93. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.KLinik für Schulterchirurgie, Rhön Kliniken, Campus Bad NeusrtadtBad Neustadt an der SaaleGermany

Personalised recommendations