Incorporation of Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) into Biodiversity Management and Climate Change Variability Scenarios for Threatened Fish Species and Fishing Communities—Communication Patterns Among BioResources Users as a Prerequisite for Co-management: A Case Study of Berlenga MNR, Portugal and Resex-Mar of Arraial do Cabo, RJ, Brazil

  • Heitor de Oliveira BragaEmail author
  • Miguel Ângelo Pardal
  • Ulisses M. Azeiteiro
Part of the Climate Change Management book series (CCM)


Under current marine environmental problems and climate change scenarios, marine reserves emerge as an alternative management tool to protect marine resources and biodiversity and local ecological knowledge (LEK) can provide a valuable base for resource management. This study approaches the current situation of artisanal fisheries in two marine protected areas (MPAs) and proposes biodiversity management scenarios, under a changing climate, using fishers’ local ecological knowledge (LEK) in two hemispheres: The Berlenga Marine Natural Reserve (Berlenga MNR), Portugal and the Marine Extractive Reserve (Resex-Mar) of Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The most targeted species of artisanal fisheries in both protected areas were reviewed for habitat use, threats and conservation status. The use of LEK is a powerful tool for developing new conservation strategies namely dealing with climate change responses of biological bioresources and fishing communities’ adaptation. Participatory management by all users in a protected area is regarded as an effective means to improve decision making among stakeholders. LEK studies of taxonomy, population dynamics, ecology, habitat use, threats, and reproduction as well as the assessment of this information for artisanal fisheries are still very scarce in Europe and Brazil. The use of LEK provides important biological information and insight into the attitudes of fishermen towards biodiversity conservation in both MPAs. Other MPAs in mainland Portugal and the Madeira and Azores Autonomic Regions are also potential areas for the administration of LEK studies. Also the social network used for communication of knowledge and information related to natural resources among different professionals and resource extractors operating in a coastal seascape is critical under a scenario of biodiversity loss and climate change impacts.


Fishers’ local ecological knowledge Artisanal fisheries Ethnobiology Berlenga Arraial do Cabo Climate change Communication 



We are grateful to Bruno Zucherato for his collaboration. We thank the CAPES Foundation—Ministry of Education of Brazil for financial support (BEX: 8926/13-1).


  1. Abaunza P, Murta AG, Campbell N, Cimmaruta R, Comesaña AS, Dahle G, Santamaría MG, Gordo LS, Iversen SA, MacKenzie K, others (2008) Stock identity of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea: integrating the results from different stock identification approaches. Fish Res 89:196–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agardy T, Bridgewater P, Crosby MP, Day J, Dayton PK, Kenchington R, Laffoley D, McConney P, Murray PA, Parks JE, Peau L (2003) Dangerous targets? Unresolved issues and ideological clashes around marine protected areas. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosyst 13:353–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albuquerque UP, Silva JS, Campos JLA, Sousa RS, Silva TC, Alves RRN (2013) The current status of ethnobiological research in Latin America: gaps and perspectives. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 9:72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexander C, Bynum N, Johnson E, King U, Mustonen T, Neofotis P, Oettlé N, Rosenzweig C, Sakakibara C, Shadrin V, Vicarelli M, Waterhouse J, Weeks B (2011) Linking indigenous and scientific knowledge of climate change. BioScience 61(6):477–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allison GW, Lubchenco J, Carr MH (1998) Marine reserves are necessary but not sufficient for marine conservation. Ecol Appl 8:S79–S92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amaral ACZ, Jablonski S (2005) Conservation of marine and coastal biodiversity in Brazil. Conserv Biol 19:625–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andrade JP, Erzini K, Palma J (1996) Gastric evacuation and feeding in the gilthead sea bream reared under semi-intensive conditions. Aquac Int 4:129–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Azevedo PJS (2004) Onze Anos de Produção Pesqueira na Região de Arraial do Cabo-RJ. Brasil. MSc thesis, Universidade Federal Fluminense. Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, BrasilGoogle Scholar
  9. Azzurro E, Moschella P, Maynou F (2011) Tracking signals of change in Mediterranean fish diversity based on local ecological knowledge. PLoS ONE 6:9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baloi M, Carvalho CV, Sterzelecki FC, Passini G, Cerqueira VR (2014) Effects of feeding frequency on growth, feed efficiency and body composition of juveniles Brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindacher 1879). Aqua Resear 47:554–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bandarra NM, Batista I, Nunes ML, Empis JM (2001) Seasonal variation in the chemical composition of horse-mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). Eur Food Res Technol 212:535–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barbosa-Filho MLV, Tavares DC, Siciliano S, Moura JF de, Costa-Neto EM, Motta F dos S, Del Vechio Koike C (2016) Interactions between whale sharks, Rhincodon typus Smith, 1928 (Orectolobiformes, Rhincodontidae), and Brazilian fisheries: The need for effective conservation measures. Mar Policy 73:210–215Google Scholar
  13. Beaudreau AH, Levin PS (2014) Advancing the use of local ecological knowledge for assessing data-poor species in coastal ecosystems. Ecol Appl 24:244–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Begossi A (2008) Local knowledge and training towards management. Environ Dev Sustain 10:591–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Begossi A, Silvano RA (2008) Ecology and ethnoecology of dusky grouper [garoupa, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834)] along the coast of Brazil. J Ethnobiol Ethnomedicine 4:20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Begossi A, Hanazaki N, Silvano RAM (2002) Ecologia humana, etnoecologia e conservação. In: Amorozo MCM, Ming LC, Silva SP (eds) Métodos de coleta e análise de dados em etnobiologia, etnoecologia e disciplinas correlatas. UNESP/CNPq, Rio Claro, pp 92–128Google Scholar
  17. Begossi A, Salivonchyk S, Lopes PFM, Silvano RAM (2016) Fishers’ knowledge on the coast of Brazil. J Ethnobiol Ethnomedicine 12:20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Benchalel W, Kara MH (2013) Age, growth and reproduction of the white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus (Linneaus, 1758) off the eastern coast of Algeria. J Appl Ichthyol 29:64–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bender MG, Floeter SR, Hanazaki N (2013) Do traditional fishers recognise reef fish species declines? Shifting environmental baselines in Eastern Brazil. Fish Manag Ecol 20:58–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bender MG, Machado GR, de Azevedo Silva PJ, Floeter SR, Monteiro-Netto C, Luiz OJ, Ferreira CE (2014) Local ecological knowledge and scientific data reveal overexploitation by multigear artisanal fisheries in the Southwestern Atlantic. PLoS ONE 9:e110332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Berkes F (1993) Traditional ecological knowledge in perspective. In: Inglis JT (ed) Traditional ecological knowledge: concepts and cases. Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, pp 1–9Google Scholar
  22. Berkes F (2009) Indigenous ways of knowing and the study of environmental change. J Royal Soc N Z 39(4):151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Berkes F (2012) Sacred ecology. Routledge: traditional ecological knowledge and resource management. Taylor & Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  24. Berkes F, Jolly D (2001) Adapting to climate change: social-ecological resilience in a Canadian western Arctic community. Conserv Ecol 5(2):18. [online] URL:
  25. Berkes F, Folke C, Gadgil M (1995) Traditional ecological knowledge, biodiversity, resilience and sustainability. In: Perrings C, Mäler K-G, Folke C, Holling CS, Jansson B-O (eds) Biodiversity conservation. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 281–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Berkes F, Colding J, Folke C (2000) Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecol Appl 10:1251–1262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Berkes F, Berkes MK, Fast H (2007) Collaborative integrated management in Canada’s north: the role of local and traditional knowledge and community-based monitoring. Coast Manag 35:143–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bertoncini A, Gerhardinger L, Sadovy Y, Rocha L, Choat J, Ferreira B, Craig M (2008a) Mycteroperca acutirostris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. Accessed 4 Jun 2015
  29. Bertoncini A, Choat J, Craig M, Ferreira B, Rocha L (2008b) Mycteroperca microlepis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. Accessed 13 Apr 2015
  30. Bevilacqua AHV, Carvalho AR, Angelini R, Christensen V (2016) More than anecdotes: fishers’ ecological knowledge can fill gaps for ecosystem modeling. PLOS ONE 11:e0155655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bizsel C, Yokes B, Pollard D, Kara MH, Bariche M, Quignard JP (2011) Pomatomus saltatrix. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. Accessed 4 Jul 2015
  32. Bosley KL, Lavelle JW, Brodeur RD, Wakefield WW, Emmett RL, Baker ET, Rehmke KM (2004) Biological and physical processes in and around Astoria submarine Canyon, Oregon, USA. J Mar Syst 50:21–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Botsford LW, Castilla JC, Peterson CH (1997) The management of fisheries and marine ecosystems. Science 277:509–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Boulton K, Massault C, Houston RD, de Koning DJ, Haley CS, Bovenhuis H, Batargias C, Canario AV, Kotoulas G, Tsigenopoulos CS (2011) QTL affecting morphometric traits and stress response in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture 319:58–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Braga HO, Schiavetti A (2013) Attitudes and local ecological knowledge of experts fishermen in relation to conservation and bycatch of sea turtles (reptilia: testudines), Southern Bahia, Brazil. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 9:15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Brulé T, Mena-Loría A, Pérez-Díaz E, Renán X (2011) Diet of juvenile gag Mycteroperca microlepis from a non-estuarine seagrass bed habitat in the southern Gulf of Mexico. Bull Mar Sci 87:31–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Byg A, Salick J (2009) Local perspectives on a global phenomenon—climate change in Eastern Tibetan villages. Gl Environ Change 19(2):156–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Caló CFF, Schiavetti A, Cetra M (2009) Local ecological and taxonomic knowledge of snapper fish (Teleostei: Actinopterygii) held by fishermen in Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyol 7:403–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Candelmo AC, Deshpande A, Dockum B, Weis P, Weis JS (2010) The effect of contaminated prey on feeding, activity, and growth of young-of-the-year bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, in the laboratory. Estuaries Coasts 33:1025–1038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cergole MC, Dias-Neto J (2011) Plano de Gestão para o Uso Sustentável da Sardinha-verdadeira do Brasil. Brasilia: IBAMA, 5:180 pp. (Série Plano de Gestão dos Recursos Pesqueiros)Google Scholar
  41. Ceyhan T, Akyol O, Ayaz A, Juanes F (2007) Age, growth, and reproductive season of bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) in the Marmara region, Turkey. ICES J Mar Sci J Cons 64:531–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cinner JE, Huchery C, Hicks CC, Daw TM, Marshall N, Wamukota A, Allison EH (2015) Changes in adaptive capacity of Kenyan fishing communities. Nat Clim Change 5:872–876. doi: 10.1038/nclimate2690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Claro R (1994) Características generales de la ictiofauna. In Claro R (ed) Ecología de los peces marinos de Cuba. Instituto de Oceanología Academia de Ciencias de Cuba and Centro de Investigaciones de Quintana Roo, pp 55–70Google Scholar
  44. Coelho-Souza SA, López MS, Guimarães JRD, Coutinho R, Candella RN (2012) Biophysical interactions in the Cabo Frio upwelling system, Southeastern Brazil. Braz J Oceanogr 60:353–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Collette B, Acero A, Canales Ramirez C, Cardenas G, Carpenter K, Chang S-K, Di Natale A, Fox W, Guzman-Mora A, Juan Jorda M, Miyabe N, Montano Cruz R, Nelson R, Salas E, Schaefer K, Serra R, Sun C, Uozumi Y, Wang S, Wu J, Yeh (2012) Scomber japonicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. Accessed 13 Apr 2015
  46. Comeros-Raynal MT, Choat JH, Polidoro BA, Clements KD, Abesamis R, Craig MT, Lazuardi ME, McIlwain J, Muljadi A, Myers RF, others (2012) The likelihood of extinction of iconic and dominant herbivores and detritivores of coral reefs: the parrotfishes and surgeonfishes. PLoS One 7:e39825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cornish A, Harmelin-Vivien M (2004) (Grouper & Wrasse Specialist Group). Epinephelus marginatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. Accessed 4 Sep 2015
  48. Correia AT, Hamer P, Carocinho B, Silva A (2014) Evidence for meta-population structure of Sardina pilchardus in the Atlantic Iberian waters from otolith elemental signatures of a strong cohort. Fish Res 149:76–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Craig MT, Sadovy Y, Heemstra PC, International Union for Conservation of Nature, IUCN Species Survival Commission, IUCN/SSC Groupers & Wrasses Specialist Group (2011) Groupers of the world: a field and market guide. NISC ; [Distributed by] CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, Grahamstown, South Africa; Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  50. Crosetti D, Rossi AR, De Innocentis S (2014) AquaTrace species leaflet: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)—© ISPRA Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale. Università di Roma—La Sapienza, Italy. Accessed 16 Apr 2015
  51. Curdia J, Carvalho S, Ravara A, Gage JD, Rodrigues AM, Quintino V (2004) Deep macrobenthic communities from Nazaré submarine canyon (NW Portugal). Sci Mar 68:71–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Da Silva PP (2004) From common property to co-management: lessons from Brazil’s first maritime extractive reserve. Mar Policy 28:419–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Delicado A, Schmidt L, Guerreiro S, Gomes C (2012) Pescadores, conhecimento local e mudanças costeiras no litoral Português. Rev Gest Costeira Integrada 12:437–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Dias DF, Pezzi LP, Gherardi DFM, Camargo R (2014) Modeling the spawning strategies and larval survival of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis). Prog Oceanogr 123:38–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Dias-Neto JD, dos Santos GCB, others (2011) Comportamento da produção total e por estado, frota permissionada e balança comercial de sardinha-verdadeira. Rev CEPSUL-Biodiversidade E Conserv Mar 2:34–49Google Scholar
  56. Diegues AC (2003) Conhecimento e manejo tradicionais em áreas protegidas de uso sustentável: o caso da resex marinha do Arraial do Cabo-Rio de Janeiro. Accessed 7 Jun 2016
  57. Diegues AC (2008) Marine protected areas and artisanal fisheries in Brazil. Chennai, India, International Collective in Support of Fishworkers, (SAMUDRA Monograph). Accessed 5 Jul 2016
  58. Dietz T, Ostrom E, Stern PC (2003) The struggle to govern the commons. Science 302:1907–1912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Drew JA (2005) Use of traditional ecological knowledge in marine conservation. Conserv Biol 19:1286–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Dumaru P (2010) Community-based adaptation: enhancing community adaptive capacity in Druadrua Island, Fiji. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Clim Change 1:751–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Echwikhi K, Jribi I, Saidi B, Bradai MN (2015) The influence of the type of hook on the capture of groupers and bycatch with bottom longline in the Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 95:207–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. FAO (2015a) Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation. Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme Sparus aurata (Linnaeus, 1758). Accessed 24 Sep 2016
  63. Ferreira CEL, Gasparini JL, Carvalho-Filho A, Floeter SR (2005) A recently extinct parrotfish species from Brazil. Coral Reefs 24:128–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ferreira B, Gaspar A, Sadovy Y, Craig M (2008) Mycteroperca bonaci. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. Accessed 4 Sep 2015
  65. Ferreira HM, Reuss-Strenzel GM, Alves JA, Schiavetti A (2014) Local ecological knowledge of the artisanal fishers on Epinephelus itajara (Lichtesntein, 1822) (Teleostei: epinephelidae) in Ilhéus coast—Bahia State, Brazil. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 10:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Fishbase (2014) Froese, R. e D. Pauly. Editors. 2014. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. Accessed 4 Sep 2015
  67. Floeter SR, Halpern BS, Ferreira CEL (2006) Effects of fishing and protection on Brazilian reef fishes. Biol Conserv 128:391–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Floeter SR, Ferreira CE, Gasparini JL (2007) Os efeitos da pesca e da proteção através de UC’s marinhas: três estudos de caso e implicações para os grupos funcionais de peixes recifais no Brasil. Áreas Aquáticas Protegidas Como Instrum Gest Pesqueira Bras Ministério Meio Ambiente-MMA Org MMA Brasília 4:183–199. Accessed 25 Jul 2016
  69. Ford JD, Berrang-Ford L, King M, Furgal C (2010) Vulnerability of aboriginal health systems in Canada to climate change. Global Environ Change Hum Policy Dimensions 20(4):668–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Freyhof J, Kottelat M (2008) Dicentrarchus labrax. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. Accessed 16 Apr 2015
  71. Gaines SD, White C, Carr MH, Palumbi SR (2010) Designing marine reserve networks for both conservation and fisheries management. Proc Natl Acad Sci 107:18286–18293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gavin MC, McCarter J, Mead A, Berkes F, Stepp JR, Peterson D, Tang R (2015) Defining biocultural approaches to conservation. Trends Ecol Evol 30:140–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gerhardinger LC, Godoy EAS, Jones PJS (2009a) Local ecological knowledge and the management of marine protected areas in Brazil. Ocean Coast Manag 52:154–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gerhardinger LC, Hostim-Silva M, Medeiros RP, Matarezi J, Bertoncini ÁA, Freitas MO, Ferreira BP (2009b) Fishers’ resource mapping and goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara (Serranidae) conservation in Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyol 7:93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Giglio VJ, Bornatowski H (2016) Fishers’ ecological knowledge of smalleye hammerhead, Sphyrna tudes, in a tropical estuary. Neot Ichthyol 14:2Google Scholar
  76. Godoy JM, Souza TA, Godoy MLD, Moreira I, Carvalho ZL, Lacerda LD, Fernandes FC (2013) Groundwater and surface water quality in a coastal bay with negligible fresh groundwater discharge: Arraial do Cabo, Brazil. Mar Chem 156:85–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gómez-Baggethun E, Mingorría S, Reyes-García V, Calvet L, Montes C (2010) Traditional ecological knowledge trends in the transition to a market economy: empirical study in the Doñana Natural Areas. Conserv Biol 24:721–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. González-Wangüemert M, Pérez-Ruzafa Á (2012) In two waters: contemporary evolution of lagoonal and marine white seabream (Diplodus sargus) populations. Mar Ecol 33:337–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Green A, Smith SE, Lipsett-Moore G, Groves C, Peterson N, Sheppard S, Lokani P, Hamilton R, Almany J, Aitsi J, Bualia L (2009) Designing a resilient network of marine protected areas for Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea. Oryx 43:488–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hamilton R, de Mitcheson YS, Aguilar-Perera A (2012) The role of local ecological knowledge in the conservation and management of reef fish spawning aggregations. In: de Mitcheson YS, Colin PL (eds) Reef fish spawning aggregations: biology, research and management. Springer, The Netherlands, pp 331–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hannah L, Midgley GF, Lovejoy T, Bond WJ, Bush M, Lovett JC, Scott D, Woodward FI (2002) Conservation of biodiversity in a changing climate. Conserv Biol 16:264–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Haynes R, Barton ED, Pilling I (1993) Development, persistence, and variability of upwelling filaments off the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. J Geophys Res Oceans 1978–2012(98):22681–22692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Heemstra PC, Randall JE (1993) FAO species catalogue. Groupers of the world (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis. Rome, FAO 16, 382 ppGoogle Scholar
  84. Heemstra PC, Anderson WJ, Lobel PS (2003) Serranidae, 1308–1369 pp. In: Carpenter KE (ed) The living marine resources of the western central Atlantic, vol 2: Bony fishes part 1 (Acipenseridae to Grammatidae). FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes and American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Special Publication No. 5. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. 2, i–viii + 601–1374 pp [Dated 2002, but actually published in 2003]Google Scholar
  85. Herbst DF, Hanazaki N (2014) Local ecological knowledge of fishers about the life cycle and temporal patterns in the migration of mullet (Mugil liza) in Southern Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyol 12:879–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Hernández-Morcillo M, Hoberg J, Oteros-Rozas E, Plieninger T, Gómez-Baggethun E, Reyes-García V (2014) Traditional ecological knowledge in Europe: status quo and insights for the environmental policy agenda. Environ Sci Policy Sustain Dev 56:3–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. ICES (2013) Report of the Working Group on Southern Horse Mackerel, Anchovy, and Sardine (WGHANSA), Bilbao, Spain, 21–26 June 2013, ICES CM 2013/ACOM:16, 544 pGoogle Scholar
  88. ICMBio (2010) Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (ICMBio) - Ministério da Pesca e Aquicultura (MPA). Produção pesqueira e aquícola: estatística 2008 e 2009. Brasília (DF). Brasil. Accessed 4 May 2016
  89. ICMBio (2015) Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade. DECRETO DE 3 DE JANEIRO DE 1997. Dispõe sobre a criação da Reserva Extrativista Marinha do Arraial do Cabo, no Município de Arraial do Cabo, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, e dá outras providências. In: RESEX ARRAIAL CABO. Accessed 4 Feb 2016
  90. Inglês MCG (2010) Avaliação dos impactes das condicionantes nas actividades económicas em áreas marinhas protegidas: caso de estudo na reserva natural da Berlenga. MSc Thesis, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal. Accessed 19 Oct 2016
  91. Islam MM, Sallu S, Hubacek K, Paavola J (2014) Vulnerability of fishery-based livelihoods to the impacts of climate variability and change: insights from coastal Bangladesh. Reg Environ Change 14:281. doi: 10.1007/s10113-013-0487-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. IUCN (2016). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Downloaded on 07 December 2016
  93. Jablonski S (2007) The Brazilian sardine. Is there any room for modelling? Pan Am J Aquat Sci 2:86–93Google Scholar
  94. Juanes F, Hare JA, Miskiewicz AG (1996) Comparing early life history strategies of Pomatomus saltatrix: a global approach. Mar Freshw Res 47:365–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kottelat M, Freyhof J (2007) Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publ. Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pGoogle Scholar
  96. Le Fur J, Guilavogui A, Teitelbaum A, Rochet M-J (2011) Contribution of local fishermen to improving knowledge of the marine ecosystem and resources in the Republic of Guinea, West Africa. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 68:1454–1469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lima LG de, Batista VS da (2012) Ethnoictiology studies on Pirarucu (Arapaima mock-ups) in Central Amazon. Acta Amaz 42:337–344Google Scholar
  98. Loureiro S, Newton A, Icely JD (2005) Microplankton composition, production and upwelling dynamics in Sagres (SW Portugal) during summer of 2001. Sci Mar 69:323–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lubchenco J, Palumbi SR, Gaines SD, Andelman S (2003) Plugging a hole in the ocean: the emerging science of marine reserves 1. Ecol Appl 13:3–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Malleret-King D, Glass A, Wanyonyi I, Bunce L, Pomeroy B (2006) Socio-economic Monitoring guidelines for coastal managers of the Western Indian Ocean, SocMon WIO. CORDIO East Africa publication (Version 1). 108 p. Accessed 15 Sept 2016
  101. Marino G, Azzurro E, Massari A, Finoia MG, Mandich A (2001) Reproduction in the dusky grouper from the southern Mediterranean. J Fish Biol 58:909–927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Martins IM, Medeiros RP, Hanazaki N (2014) From fish to ecosystems: the perceptions of fishermen neighboring a southern Brazilian marine protected area. Ocean Coast Manag 91:0e57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. McClanahan TR, Marnane MJ, Cinner JE, Kiene WE (2006) A comparison of Marine Protected Areas and alternative approaches to coral-reef management. Curr Biol 16:1408–1413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. McGovern JC, Wyanski DM, Pashuk O, Manooch CS II, Sedberry GR (1998) Changes in the sex ratio and size at maturity of gag, Mycteroperca microlepis, from the Atlantic coast of the southeastern United States. Fish Bull 96:797–807Google Scholar
  105. Mckenna S, Allen GR (2002) Coral reef biodiversity: assessment and conservation. In: Best BA, Pomeroy RS, Balboa CM (eds) Implications for coral reef management and policy: relevant findings from the 19th International Coral Reef Symposium. US Agency for International Development, World Resources Institute, Conservation International, International Society for Reef Studies. pp 92–94Google Scholar
  106. McNamara KE (2013) Raising awareness about climate change in Pacific communities. Environ Educ Res. doi: 10.1080/13504622.2013.769046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Mellado T, Brochier T, Timor J, Vitancurt J (2014) Use of local knowledge in marine protected area management. Mar Policy 44:390–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. MMA (2005) Ministério do Meio Ambiente do Brasil—INSTRUÇÃO NORMATIVA No-53, DE 22 DE NOVEMBRO DE 2005 Estabelece o tamanho mínimo de captura de espécies marinhas e estuarinas do litoral sudeste e sul do Brasil. Accessed 11 Mar 2016
  109. Mmassy EC, Røskaft E (2014) Factors affecting local ecological knowledge and perceived threat to the kori bustard (Ardeotis kori struthiunculus) in the Serengeti Ecosystem, Northern Tanzania. Int J Biodivers Conserv 6:459–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Monteiro-Neto C, Bertoncini ÁA, Chaves LC de, Noguchi R, Mendonça-Neto JP, Rangel CA (2013) Checklist of marine fish from coastal islands of Rio de Janeiro, with remarks on marine conservation. Mar Biodivers Rec 6:e139Google Scholar
  111. Morris AV, Roberts CM, Hawkins JP (2000) The threatened status of groupers (Epinephelinae). Biodivers Conserv 9:919–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Moser S (2010) Communicating climate change: history, challenges, process and future directions. WIREs Clim Change 1:31–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Moura RL, Figueiredo JL, Sazima I (2001) A new parrotfish (Scaridae) from Brazil, and revalidation of Sparisoma amplum (Ranzani, 1842), Sparisoma frondosum (Agassiz, 1831), Sparisoma axillare (Steindachner, 1878) and Scarus trispinosus Valenciennes, 1840. Bull Mar Sci 68:505–524Google Scholar
  114. Munday PL, Warner RR, Monro K, Pandolfi JM, Marshall DJ (2013) Predicting evolutionary responses to climate change in the sea. Ecol Lett 16:1488–1500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Murta AG (2000) Morphological variation of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in the Iberian and North African Atlantic: implications for stock identification. ICES J Mar Sci J Cons 57:1240–1248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Nabhan GP (2010) Perspectives in ethnobiology: ethnophenology and climate change. J Ethnobiol 30(1):1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Novacek MJ, Cleland EE (2001) The current biodiversity extinction event: scenarios for mitigation and recovery. Proc Natl Acad Sci 98:5466–5470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Oliveira PB, Nolasco R, Dubert J, Moita T, Peliz Á (2009) Surface temperature, chlorophyll and advection patterns during a summer upwelling event off central Portugal. Cont Shelf Res 29:759–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Özden Ö (2010) Micro, macro mineral and proximate composition of Atlantic bonito and horse mackerel: a monthly differentiation. Int J Food Sci Technol 45:578–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Padovani-Ferreira B, Floeter S, Rocha L, Ferreira C, Francini-Filho R, Moura R, Gaspar A, Feitosa C (2012) Scarus trispinosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. Accessed 13 Apr 2015
  121. Paiva MP, Andrade-Tubino MF (1998) Distribuição e abundância de peixes bentônicos explotados pelos linheiros ao largo do sudeste do Brasil (1986–1995). Rev Bras Biol 58:619–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Paiva MP, Falcão A (2002) Estrutura de cardumes da sardinha-verdadeira, Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879), no estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brasil). Revta Bras Zool 19:85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Pardal MA, Azeiteiro UM (2001) Zooplankton biomass, abundance and diversity in a shelf area of Portugal (the Berlenga Marine Natural Reserve). Arquipélago. Life and Mar Sci 25:49–62Google Scholar
  124. Parrish RH, Serra R, Grant WS (1989) The monotypic sardines, sardina and sardinops: their taxonomy, distribution, stock structure, and zoogeography. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 46:2019–2036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Pelicice FM, Vitule JRS, Lima Junior DP, Orsi ML, Agostinho AA (2014) A serious new threat to Brazilian freshwater ecosystems: the naturalization of nonnative fish by decree. Conserv Lett 7:55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Pereira GC, Coutinho R, Ebecken NFF (2008) Data mining for environmental analysis and diagnostic: a case study of upwelling ecosystem of Arraial do Cabo. Braz J Oceanogr 56:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Pinto MF, Mourão JS, Alves RRN (2016) How do artisanal fishermen name fish? An ethnotaxonomic study in Northeastern Brazil. J Ethnobiol 36:348–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Queiroga H, Leão F, Coutinho M (2008) Candidatura das Berlengas a Reserva da Biosfera da UNESCO. Versão para consulta pública. IDAD, Aveiro. Portugal. 138 pGoogle Scholar
  129. Radhouani H, Poeta P, Pinto L, Miranda J, Coelho C, Carvalho C, Rodrigues J, López M, Torres C, Vitorino R, others (2010) Proteomic characterization of vanA-containing Enterococcus recovered from Seagulls at the Berlengas Natural Reserve, W Portugal. Proteome Sci 8:1–12Google Scholar
  130. Riedlinger D, Berkes F (2001) Contributions of traditional knowledge to understanding climate change in the Canadian arctic. Polar Record 37(203):315–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Rigos G, Katharios P (2010) Pathological obstacles of newly-introduced fish species in Mediterranean mariculture: a review. Rev Fish Biol Fish 20:47–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Rocha J, Yletyinen J, Biggs R, Blenckner T, Peterson G (2015) Marine regime shifts: drivers and impacts on ecosystems services. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 370:20130273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Rodrigues RR, Lorenzzetti JA (2001) A numerical study of the effects of bottom topography and coastline geometry on the Southeast Brazilian coastal upwelling. Cont Shelf Res 21:371–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Rodrigues NV, Maranhão P, Oliveira P, Alberto J (2008) Guia de espécies submarinas: Portugal, Berlengas. Edição Instituto Politécnico de Leiria, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  135. Ruddle K (2000) Systems of knowledge: dialogue, relationships and process. Environ Dev Sustain 2:277–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Ruddle K, Hickey FR (2008) Accounting for the mismanagement of tropical nearshore fisheries. Environ Dev Sustain 10:565–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Salick J, Ross N (2009) Traditional peoples and climate change. Glob Environ Change 19(2):137–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Santos AJFR (2011) O papel dos conhecimentos e dos modos de vida locais no desenvolvimento sustentável: estudo exploratório sobre o impacto da Reserva Natural das Ilhas Berlengas na Comunidade Piscatória. MSc thesis, Universidade AbertaGoogle Scholar
  139. Santos MPN, Seixas S, Aggio RBM, Hanazaki N, Costa M, Schiavetti A, Dias JA, Azeiteiro UM (2012) A Pesca enquanto Atividade Humana: Pesca Artesanal e Sustentabilidade. Rev Gest Costeira Integrada 12:405–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Scheel-Ybert R (2000) Vegetation stability in the Southeastern Brazilian coastal area from 5500 to 1400 14C yr BP deduced from charcoal analysis. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 110:111–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Scoles DR, Collette BB, Graves JE (1998) Global phylogeography of mackerels of the genus Scomber. Fish Bull 96:823–842Google Scholar
  142. Setti AFF, Ribeiro H, Gallo E, Alves F, Azeiteiro UM, (2016a) Climate change and health: governance mechanisms in traditional communities of Mosaico Bocaina/Brazil. In: Climate change and health. Springer International Publishing, 329–351 ppGoogle Scholar
  143. Setti AFF, Ribeiro H, Azeiteiro UM, Gallo E (2016b) Governance and the promotion of sustainable and healthy territories in the experience of Bocaina, Brazil. Jour of Integr Coast Zon Manag 16:57–69Google Scholar
  144. Silvano RAM, Begossi A (2012) Fishermen’s local ecological knowledge on Southeastern Brazilian coastal fishes: contributions to research, conservation, and management. Neotropical Ichthyol 10:133–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Silvano RAM, Valbo-Jørgensen J (2008) Beyond fishermen’s tales: contributions of fishers’ local ecological knowledge to fish ecology and fisheries management. Environ Dev Sustain 10:657–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Soares HC, Ponzi Pezzi L, Marcolino Gherardi DF, Tavares Paes E (2011) Oceanic and atmospheric patterns during spawning periods prior to extreme catches of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) in the southwest Atlantic. Sci Mar 75:665–677Google Scholar
  147. Svanber I, Łuczaj Ł, Pardo-de-Santayana M, Pieroni A (2011) History and current trends of ethnobiological research in Europe. Ethnobiol. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, pp 191–214Google Scholar
  148. Tacon AGJ, Metian M (2009) Fishing for aquaculture: non-food use of small pelagic forage fish-a global perspective. Rev Fish Sci 17:305–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Teixeira SF, Ferreira BP, Padovan IP (2004) Aspects of fishing and reproduction of the black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey, 1860) (Serranidae: Epinephelinae) in the Northeastern Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyol 2:19–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Vasconcelos J, Afonso-Dias M, Faria G (2012) “ARQUIPÉLAGO. Life and Marine Sciences”. Atlantic chub mackerel (Scomber colias) spawning season, size and age at first maturity in Madeira waters. Life Mar Sci 43–51Google Scholar
  151. Vasco-Rodrigues N, Mendes S, Franco J, Castanheira M, Castro N, Maranhão P (2011) Fish diversity in the Berlengas Natural Reserve (Portugal), a marine protected area. Rev Ecol 35–43Google Scholar
  152. Vetter EW, Dayton PK (1998) Macrofaunal communities within and adjacent to a detritus-rich submarine canyon system. Deep Sea Res Part II Top Stud Oceanogr 45:25–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Vetter EW, Smith CR, De Leo FC (2010) Hawaiian hotspots: enhanced megafaunal abundance and diversity in submarine canyons on the oceanic islands of Hawaii. Mar Ecol 31:183–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Viegas V, Azeiteiro UM, Alves F (2016) Fostering resilience among artisanal fishers in Peniche (Portugal): an exploratory study. In: Filho WL, Musa H, Cavan G, O’Hare P, Seixas J (eds) Climate change adaptation, resilience and hazards. Springer International Publishing, Switerzland, pp 305–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Ward R (2010) Communicating climate change. Weather 65:309–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Whitehead PJP, Nelson GJ, Wongratana T (1985) FAO s clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, anchovies and wolf-herrings. Part 1—chirocentridae, clupeidae, and pristigasteridae. Food & Agriculture Org. Fis Synopsis, 7 (Pt. 1): pp 1–303Google Scholar
  157. Wilson DC, Nielsen JR, Degnbol P (eds) (2003) The fisheries co-management experience. Accomplishments, challenges and prospects. Fish and fisher series, vol 26Google Scholar
  158. Wilson DC, Raakjær J, Degnbol P (2006) Local ecological knowledge and practical fisheries management in the tropics: a policy brief. Mar Policy 30:794–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Worm B, Barbier EB, Beaumont N, Duffy JE, Folke C, Halpern BS, Jackson JBC, Lotze HK, Micheli F, Palumbi SR, Sala E, Selkoe KA, Stachowicz JJ, Watson R (2006) Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services. Science 314:787–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Würtz M (2012) Mediterranean submarine canyons: ecology and governance. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Málaga, SpainGoogle Scholar
  161. Yáñez-Arancibia A, Day JW, Reyes E (2013) Understanding the coastal ecosystem-based management approach in the Gulf of Mexico. J Coast Res 63:244–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Yli-Pelkonen V, Kohl J (2005) The role of local ecological knowledge in sustainable urban planning: perspectives from Finland. S Sci, Pract Pol 1:1Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heitor de Oliveira Braga
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Miguel Ângelo Pardal
    • 1
  • Ulisses M. Azeiteiro
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Functional Ecology—CFE, Department of Life SciencesUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  2. 2.CAPES FoundationMinistry of Education of BrazilBrasíliaBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Biology and CESAM—Centre for Environmental and Marine StudiesUniversity of AveiroAveiroPortugal

Personalised recommendations