Preliminary Investigations on Augmented Reality for the Literacy Development of Deaf Children

  • Aziza Almutairi
  • Shiroq Al-MegrenEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10645)


This paper reports on ongoing research on the development of an Augmented Reality (AR) application for the literacy development of hard of hearing children, particularly deaf children that rely on Arabic Sign Language (ArSL). This research is intended to help deaf children learn how to read by enhancing current elementary courseware with visual augmentation. Elicitation from literature reveals the profound value AR can provide for deaf learners, i.e. visual learners. Nevertheless, this approach is rarely undertaken for ArSL. Preliminary studies were conducted to determine the visual needs of deaf Arabic learners using three different instruments and targets: interviews with teachers and interpreters, observation of deaf children, and questionnaire for parents of deaf children. The results from teachers and parents of deaf children indicate a preference for multiple resources, primarily ArSL, photos, and videos. Students, in the other hands, performed better with finger-spelling and poorly in SL. This disconnect highlights the importance of considering various perspectives in the development of applications that target literacy in younger children.


Augmented Reality Deaf Hard of hearing DHH Arabic Sign Language ArSL 


  1. 1.
    Goldin-Meadow, S., Mayberry, R.I., Read, T.O.: How do profoundly deaf children learn to read? Learn. Disabil. Res. Pract. 16, 222–229 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hanson, V.L.: Phonology and reading: evidence from profoundly deaf readers. Phonol. Read. Disabil. Solving Read. Puzzle 6, 67–89 (1989)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Musselman, C.: How do children who can’t hear learn to read an alphabetic script? A review of the literature on reading and deafness. J. Deaf Stud. Deaf Educ. 5, 9–31 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia General Authority of Statistic: Demographic survey.
  5. 5.
    Treiman, R., Hirsh-Pasek, K.: Silent reading: Insights from second-generation deaf readers. Cogn. Psychol. 15, 39–65 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Humphries, T., MacDougall, F.: Chaining and other links: making connections between American sign language and English in two types of school settings. Vis. Anthropol. Rev. 15, 84–94 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Elkins, J.: The concept of visual literacy, and its limitations. In: Visual Literacy. Routledge (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Uluyol, Ç., Sahin, S.: Augmented reality: a new direction in education (2016)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Diegmann, P., Schmidt-kraepelin, M., Van Den Eynden, S., Basten, D.: Benefits of augmented reality in educational environments – a systematic literature review. Wirtschaftsinformatik 3, 1542–1556 (2015)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Halawani, S.: Arabic sign language translation system on mobile devices. IJCSNS Int. J. Comput. Sci. Netw. Secur. 8, 251–256 (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Al-Dosri, H., Alawfi, N., Alginahi, Y.: Arabic sign language easy communicate ArSLEC. In: International Conference in Computer Information Technology, pp. 474–479 (2012)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    El-Bendary, N., Zawbaa, H.M., Daoud, M.S., Hassanien, A.E., Nakamatsu, K.: ArSLAT: Arabic sign language alphabets translator. In: International Conference on Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management Applications, pp. 590–595 (2010)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Halawani, S.M., Daman, D., Kari, S., Ahmad, A.R.: An avatar based translation system from Arabic speech to arabic sign language for deaf people. Int. J. Inf. Sci. Educ. 2, 13–20 (2013)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Oka Sudana, A.A.K., Aristamy, I.G.A.A.M., Wirdiani, N.K.A.: Augmented reality application of sign language for deaf people in Android based on smartphone. Int. J. Softw. Eng. Appl. 10, 139–150 (2016)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jiang, J., Kuang, Y.: The implementation of literacy and sign language learning system for deaf children based on the augmented reality. In: IEEE Workshop on Advanced Research and Technology in Industry Applications, pp. 911–913 (2014)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zainuddin, N.M.M., Zaman, H.B., Ahmad, A.: Heuristic evaluation on augmented reality courseware for the deaf. In: International Conference on User Science and Engineering, pp. 183–188 (2011)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zainuddin, N.M.M., Zaman, H.B., Ahmad, A.: Learning science using AR book: a preliminary study on visual needs of deaf learners. In: International Visual Informatics Conference, pp. 844–855 (2009)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cadeñanes, J., Arrieta, A.G.: Development of sign language communication skill on children through augmented reality and the MuCy model. In: Mascio, T.D., Gennari, R., Vitorini, P., Vicari, R., de la Prieta, F. (eds.) Methodologies and Intelligent Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning. AISC, vol. 292, pp. 45–52. Springer, Cham (2014). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-07698-0_6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kožuh, I., Hauptman, S., Kosec, P., Debevc, M.: Assessing the efficiency of using augmented reality for learning sign language. In: Antona, M., Stephanidis, C. (eds.) UAHCI 2015. LNCS, vol. 9176, pp. 404–415. Springer, Cham (2015). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-20681-3_38 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Baby Sign and Learn: Magic Camera - American Sign Language Edition.
  21. 21.
    DAQRI: Anatomy 4D.
  22. 22.
    Braun, V., Clarke, V.: Using thematic analysis in psychology. Using Qual. Res. Psychol. 3, 77–101 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Goldin-Meadow, S., Feldman, H.: The creation of a communication system: a study of deaf children of hearing parents. Sign Lang. Stud. 8, 225–233 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Information Technology DepartmentKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations