Advertisement

Self-Regulated Learning and Online Learning: A Systematic Review

  • Noor Latiffah AdamEmail author
  • Fatin Balkis Alzahri
  • Shaharuddin Cik Soh
  • Nordin Abu Bakar
  • Nor Ashikin Mohamad Kamal
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10645)

Abstract

Self-regulated learning (SRL) is an academically effective form of learning, which learners must set their goals and make plans before starting to learn. As an ongoing process, learners need to monitor and regulate their cognition, motivation, and behavior as well as reflect on their learning process. These processes will be repeated as a cyclic process. The emerging technologies have changed the learning environments. Technology delivers teaching to learners via online. In online learning, information of education and learners do not share the same physical setting. Online learning should provide opportunities for learners to master necessary tasks. Online learners may use SRL strategies. In this research, we have collected, synthesized, and analyzed 130 articles on various topics related to SRL that published from 1986 to 2017, focusing on online learning and mathematics. We noted several models, phases, and few other topics discussed under SRL.

Keywords

Online learning Self-regulated learning Strategies Mathematics 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by UiTM Internal Research Grants Scheme (600-IRMI/DANA 5/3/ARAS (0179/2016) from the research Management Center (RMC), Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor. The appreciation also goes to Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor for giving a moral support in the production of this paper.

References

  1. 1.
    Abdullah, M.F.N.L., et al.: Students’ discourse in learning mathematics with self-regulating strategies. Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci. 191, 2188–2194 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Agustiani, H., et al.: Self-efficacy and self-regulated learning as predictors of students academic performance. Open Psychol. J. 9(1), 1–6 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alegre, A.A.: Academic self-efficacy, self-regulated learning and academic performance in first-year university students. Propósitos y Represent. Rev. Psicol. Educ. la USIL 2(1), 101–120 (2014)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Azevedo, R.: Theoretical, conceptual, methodological, and instructional issues in research on metacognition and self-regulated learning: a discussion. Metacogn. Learn. 4(1), 87–95 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bandura, A.: Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process. 50(2), 248–287 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bandura, A.: Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River (1986)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barnard-brak, L., et al.: Profiles in self-regulated learning in the online learning environment. Int. Rev. Res. Open Distance Learn. 11, 1 (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    de Boer, H., et al.: Effective strategies for self-regulated learning : a meta-analysis (2012)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cetin, B.: Academic motivation and self-regulated learning in predicting academic achievement in college. J. Int. Educ. Res. 11(2), 95–106 (2015)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cho, M.-H.: The effects of design strategies for promoting students’ self-regulated learning skills on students’ self-regulation and achievements in online learning environments. Assoc. Educ. Commun. Technol. 27(1999), 19–23 (2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cifarelli, V., et al.: Associations of students’ beliefs with self-regulated problem solving in college Algebra. J. Adv. Acad. 21(2), 204–232 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    De Corte, E., et al.: Self-regulation of mathematical knowledge and skills. In: Handbook of Self-Regulation Learning Performance, May 2016 (2011)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Delen, E., Liew, J.: The use of interactive environments to promote self-regulation in online learning: a literature review. Eur. J. Contemp. Educ. 15(1), 24–33 (2016)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fauzi, K.M.A.: The enhancement of student’s mathematical connection ability and self-regulation learning with metacognitive learning approach in junior high school. In: 7th International Conference Research and Education in Mathematics, pp. 174–179 (2015)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hodges, C.B., Kim, C.: Email, self-regulation, self-efficacy, and achievement in a college online mathematics course. J. Educ. Comput. Res. 43(2), 207–223 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Huang, Y.-M., et al.: Supporting self-regulated learning in web 2.0 contexts. Turkish Online J. Educ. Technol. - TOJET 11(2), 187–195 (2012)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jain, S., Dowson, M.: Mathematics anxiety as a function of multidimensional self-regulation and self-efficacy. Contemp. Educ. Psychol. 34(3), 240–249 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jones, M.H., et al.: Homophily among peer groups members’ perceived self-regulated learning. J. Exp. Educ. 78, 378–394 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Junus, K., et al.: Social, cognitive, teaching, and metacognitive presence in general and focus group discussion: case study in blended e-learning Linear Algebra class. In: Proceedings of - Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE. 2015), February 2015Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kitsantas, A.: Fostering college students’ selfregulated learning with learning technologies. Hell. J. Psychol. 10(3), 235–252 (2013)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kramarski, B., et al.: How can self-regulated learning support the problem solving of third-grade students with mathematics anxiety? Math. Educ. 42(2), 179–193 (2010)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lai, C.-L., Hwang, G.-J.: A self-regulated flipped classroom approach to improving students’ learning performance in a mathematics course. Comput. Educ. 100(May), 126–140 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Leidinger, M., Perels, F.: Training self-regulated learning in the classroom: development and evaluation of learning materials to train self-regulated learning during regular mathematics lessons at primary school. Educ. Res. Int. 2012, 1–14 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Loch, B., Mcloughlin, C.: An instructional design model for screencasting: engaging students in self-regulated learning. In: ASCILITE 2011 Changing Demands, Changing Directions, pp. 816–821 (2011)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Magno, C.: Developing and assessing self-regulated learners. Assess. Handb. Contin. Educ. Progr. 1, 26–41 (2015)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Marchis, I., Balogh, T.: Secondary school pupils’ self-regulated learning skills. Acta Didact. Napocensia 3(3), 147–152 (2010)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mcmahon, M., Oliver, R.: Promoting self-regulated learning in an on-line environment. In: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications, pp. 1299–1305 (2001)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Means, B. et al.: Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning. Structure, p. 66 (2009)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Moos, D.C., Ringdal, A.: Self-regulated learning in the classroom: a literature review on the teacher’s role. Educ. Res. Int. 2012, 1–15 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Núñez, J.C., et al.: Implementation of training programs in self-regulated learning strategies in moodle format: results of a experience in higher education. Psicothema 23(2), 274–281 (2011)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nussbaumer, A., et al.: A competence-based service for supporting self-regulated learning in virtual environments. J. Learn. Anal. 2(1), 101–133 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pajares, F., Valiante, G.: Students’self-efficacy in their self-regulated learning strategies: a developmental perspective. Psychol. Int. J. Psychol. Orient. 45(4), 211–221 (2002)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Panadero, E.: A review of self-regulated learning: six models and four directions for research. Front. Psychol. 8, 1–28 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Perels, F., et al.: Is it possible to improve mathematical achievement by means of self-regulation strategies? Evaluation of an intervention in regular math classes. Eur. J. Psychol. Educ. 24(1), 17–31 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Phan, H.P.: The Development of english and mathematics self-efficacy: a latent growth curve analysis. J. Educ. Res. 105(3), 196–209 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pintrich, P.R.: The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In: Handbook of Self-Regulation (2000)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rahimi, E., et al.: A learning model for enhancing the student’s control in educational process using web 2.0 personal learning environments. Br. J. Educ. Technol. 46(4), 780–792 (2015)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rogers, D., Swam, K.: Self-regulated learning and internet searching. Teach. Coll. Rec. 106(9), 1804–1824 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Roll, I., Winne, P.H.: Understanding, evaluating, and supporting self-regulated learning using learning analytics. J. Learn. Anal. 2(1), 7–12 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Salmerón-Pérez, H., et al.: Self-regulated learning, self-efficacy beliefs and performance during the late childhood. Relieve - e-J. Educ. Res. Assess. Eval. 16(2), 1–18 (2010)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sartawi, A., et al.: Predicting mathematics achievement by motivation and self-efficacy across gender and achievement levels. Interdiscip. J. Teach. Learn. 2(2), 59–77 (2012)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Schunk, D.: Self-evaluation and self-regulated learning. Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York (1996)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Schunk, D.H., Zimmerman, B.J. (eds.): Self-regulation of Learning and Performance: Issues and Educational Applications. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc., New Jersey (1994)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Shih, S.: Children’s self-efficacy beliefs, goal-setting behaviors, and self-regulated learning. J. Natl Taipei Teachers Coll. 15, 265–282 (2002)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Shukor, N.A., et al.: A preliminary study on socially shared regulation during online collaborative mathematics learning. In: 2015 IEEE Conference on e-Learning, e-Management e-Services, IC3e 2015, pp. 1–7 (2016)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sperling, R.A., et al.: Metacognition and self-regulated learning constructs. Educ. Res. Eval. 10(2), 117–139 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tzohar-Rozen, M., Kramarski, B.: Metacognition, motivation and emotions: contribution of self-regulated learning to solving mathematical problems. Glob. Educ. Rev. 1(4), 76–95 (2014)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Virtanen, P., et al.: Self-regulation in higher education: students’ motivational, regulational and learning strategies, and their relationships to study success. Stud. Learn. Soc. 3, 1–2 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wadsworth, L.M., et al.: Online mathematics achievement: effects of learning strategies and self-efficacy. J. Dev. Educ. 30(3), 6–14 (2007)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wigfield, A. et al.: Influences on the development of academic self-regulatory processes. In: Handbook of Self-regulation of Learning and Performance, pp. 33–48 (2011)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Williamson, G.: Self-regulated learning: an overview of metacognition, motivation and behaviour. J. Init. Teach. Inq. 1, 25–27 (2015)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Yidizli, H., Saban, A.: The effect of self-regulated learning on sixth-grade Turkish students’ mathematics achievements and motivational beliefs. Cogent Educ. 3(1), 1–17 (2016)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Zimmerman, B.J.: A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning. J. Educ. Psychol. 81(3), 329–339 (1989)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Zimmerman, B.J.: Becoming a self-regulated learner: an overview. Theory Pract. 41(2), 64–70 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Zimmerman, B.J.: Investigating self-regulation and motivation: historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. Am. Educ. Res. J. 45(1), 166–183 (2008)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zimmerman, B.J.: Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: an overview. Educ. Psychol. 25, 3–17 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Zimmerman, B.J., Martinez-Pons, M.: Pursuing Academic Self Regulation: a 20-Year Methodological Quest. McGraw Hill, Singapore (2004)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Zimmerman, B.J., Martinez-Pons, M.: Development of a structured interview for assessing student use of self-regulated learning strategies. Am. Educ. Res. J. 23(4), 614–628 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Zimmerman, B.J., Schunk, D.H. (eds.): Self-regulated learning: from teaching to self-reflective practice. Guilford Publications Inc., New York (1998)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    e-learning Concepts, Trends, Applications. https://www.talentlms.com/elearning/elearning-101-jan2014-v1.1.pdf

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Noor Latiffah Adam
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fatin Balkis Alzahri
    • 1
  • Shaharuddin Cik Soh
    • 1
  • Nordin Abu Bakar
    • 1
  • Nor Ashikin Mohamad Kamal
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Computer and Mathematical SciencesUniversiti Teknologi MARAShah AlamMalaysia

Personalised recommendations