The Impact of English as a Global Lingua Franca on Intercultural Communication

  • Juliane HOUSE
Part of the Multilingual Education book series (MULT, volume 24)


This chapter first examines the concept “lingua franca”, moving from an historical overview to the present status of English as a lingua franca (ELF). English as a lingua franca is today used in many domains across many different ethnic groups, nation states and regions, and it is steadily becoming more important as a default language in many parts of Asia. As a lingua franca, English is also the first truly global language in history. And it is this unrivalled position of English today which has thrown up massive criticism – criticism directed at the assumption of the cultural neutrality of English as a lingua franca, at the elitist nature of English in many parts of the world, and at its potential for harming local languages in Asia. These points of criticism will be examined in the chapter from a socio-cultural and economic perspective.


  1. Amouzadeh, M., & House, J. (2010). Translation as a language contact phenomenon: The case of English and Persian. Languages in Contrast, 10, 54–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker, W. (2009). Language, culture and identity through English as a lingua franca in Asia: Notes from the field. The Linguistics Journal. Special Issue: Language, Culture and Identity in Asia. pp. 8–35.Google Scholar
  3. Baumgarten, N., & House, J. (2010). Stance-taking through high-frequency I plus verb collations in native and non-native English. Journal of Pragmatics, 42, 1183–2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bloch, J. (2004). Second language socialization in a bilingual chatroom: Global and local considerations. Language Learning and Technology, 8(3), 44–65.Google Scholar
  5. Canagarajah, S. (2007). The ecology of global English. International Multilingualism Journal, 1(2), 89–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cogo, A., & Dewey, M. (2006). Efficiency in ELF communication: From pragmatic motive to lexico-grammatical innovation. Nordic Journal of English Studies, 5(2), 59–93.Google Scholar
  7. Connor, U. (1996). Contrastive rhetoric. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cook, V. (1992). Linguistics and second language acquisition. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  9. Crystal, D. (2006). Language and the internet (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De Swaan, A. (2001). Words of the world. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  11. Edmondson, W. J. (1981). Spoken discourse. A model for analysis. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  12. Firth, A. (1996). The discursive accomplishment of normality: On conversation analysis and ‘lingua franca’ English. Journal of Pragmatics, 26(2), 237–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Firth, A. (2009). The lingua franca factor. Intercultural pragmatics. In J. House (Ed.), Special issue on English as a lingua franca 6(2), 147–170.Google Scholar
  14. Hashim, A., Kaur, J., & Kuang, J. S. (2016). Identity Regionalism and English as an ASEAN lingua franca. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, 5(2), 229–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. House, J. (1997). Translation quality assessment. A model revisited. Tübingen: Narr.Google Scholar
  16. House, J. (1999). Misunderstanding in intercultural communication. Interactions in English as a lingua franca and the myth of mutual intelligibility. In C. Gnutzmann (Ed.), Teaching and learning English as a global language (pp. 245–267). Frankfurt/Main: Lang.Google Scholar
  17. House, J. (2002). Communicating in English as a lingua franca. In EUROSLA yearbook (Vol. 2, pp. 243–261).Google Scholar
  18. House, J. (2003). English as a lingua franca: A threat to multilingualism? Journal of SocioLinguistics, 7(4), 556–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. House, J. (2006). Communicative styles in English and German. European Journal of English Studies, 10(3), 249–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. House, J. (2009a). Subjectivity in English as lingua franca discourse: The case of you know. In J. House (ed.), Special issue, intercultural pragmatics, 6(2), 171–193.Google Scholar
  21. House, J. (2009b). Translation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. House, J. (2010). The pragmatics of English as a lingua franca. In A. Trosborg (Ed.), Handbook of pragmatics (Vol. vol. 7, pp. 363–387). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  23. House, J. (2011). Global and intercultural communication. In K. Aijmer & G. Andersen (Eds.), Handbook of pragmatics (Vol. vol. 5, pp. 363–390). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  24. House, J. (2012). Teaching oral skills in English as a lingua franca. In L. Alsagoff, S. Lee, G. H. McKay, & W. A. Renanda (Eds.), Principles and practices for teaching English as an international language (pp. 186–205). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. House, J. (2013). Developing pragmatic competence in English as a lingua franca: Using discourse markers to express (inter)subjectivity and connectivity. Journal of Pragmatics, 59, 57–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. House, J. (2014). Managing academic institutional discourse in English as a lingua franca. Functions of Language, 21(1), 50–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. House, J. (2016a). Own language use in academic discourse in English as a lingua franca. In K. Murata (Ed.), Exploring ELF in Japanese academic and business contexts (pp. 59–70). Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar
  28. House, J. (2016b). Translation as communication across languages and cultures. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Hüllen, W. (1992). Identifikationssprachen und Kommunikationssprachen. Zeitschrift für germanistische Linguistik, 20, 298–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jenkins, J. (2009). Exploring attitudes towards English as a lingua franca in the East Asian contexts. In K. Murata & J. Jenkins (Eds.), Global Englishes in Asian contexts (pp. 40–56). Houndsmill: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ji, K. (2016). The linguistic features of ELF by Chinese users in China-ASEAN communication contexts. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, 5(2), 273–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kachru, B. (1982). The other tongue: English across cultures. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  33. Kachru, B. (2005). Asian Englishes: Beyond the canon. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Kaplan, R. (1966). Cultural thought patterns in intercultural education. Language Learning, 16(1), 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kirkpatrick, A. (2003). English as an ASEAN lingua franca: Implications for research and language teaching. Asian Englishes, 6(2), 82–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kirkpatrick, A. (2007). World Englishes: Implications for international communication and English language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Kirkpatrick, A. (2012). English in ASEAN: Implications for regional multilingualism. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 33(4), 331–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kirkpatrick, A. (Ed.) (2016). Special Issue of the Journal of English as a lingua franca: The Asian Corpus of English. Google Scholar
  39. Knapp, K., & Meierkord, C. (Eds.). (2001). Lingua franca communication. Frankfurt/Main: Lang.Google Scholar
  40. Kramsch, C. (2009). The multilingual subject. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Kranich, S., Becher, V., & Höder, S. (2011). A tentative typology of translation-induced language change. In S. Kranich, V. Becher, S. Höder, & J. House (Eds.), Multilingual discourse production (pp. 11–44). Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Krauss, M. (1992). The world’s languages in crisis. Language, 68(1), 4–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lam, W. S. E. (2004). Second Language cyber rhetoric: A study of Chinese L2 writers in an on-line Usernet group. Language Learning and Technology, 8(3), 66–82.Google Scholar
  44. Lucy, J. (1992). Language diversity and thought: A reformulation of the linguistic relativity hypothesis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lucy, J. (1996). The scope of linguistic relativity: An analysis and review of empirical research. In J. Gumperz & S. Levinson (Eds.), Rethinking linguistic relativity (pp. 37–69). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  46. McArthur, T. (2003). English as an Asian language. English Today, 19(2), 19–22.Google Scholar
  47. Ortega y Gasset, J. (1960). Miseria y esplendor de la traducción. Elend und Glanz der Übersetzung. München: Langewiesche-Brandt.Google Scholar
  48. Östman, J.-O. (1981). You know – A discourse-functional approach. Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Paradis, M. (2004). A neurolinguistic theory of bilingualism. Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pennycook, A. (2012). Lingua Francas as language ideologies. In A. Kirkpatrick & R. Sussex (Eds.), English as an international language in Asia: Implications for language education (pp. 137–154). Berlin/New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Phillipson, R. (2009). Linguistic imperialism continued. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. Pölzl, U., & Seidlhofer, B. (2006). In and on their own terms: The ‘habitat factor’ in English as a lingua franca interactions. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 177, 151–176.Google Scholar
  53. Price, C., Green, D., & Studnitz, R. v. (1999). A functional imaging study of translation and language switching. Brain, 122, 2221–2235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sanford, A., & Graesser, A. (2006). Shallow processing and underspecification. Discourse Processes, 42(2), 99–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Seidlhofer, B. (2011). Understanding English as a lingua franca. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Selinker, L. (1972). Interlanguage. IRAL, 10(3), 31–54.Google Scholar
  57. Soltau, A. (2007). Englisch als lingua franca in der wissenschaftlichen Lehre: Charakteristika und Herausforderungen englischsprachiger Masterstudiengänge. Dissertation Universität Hamburg.Google Scholar
  58. Ten Thije, J., & Zeevaertt, L. (2007). Receptive multilingualism. Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Terauchi, H.. & Maswana, S. (2015). Essential English for business meetings: Responses from 909 businesspersons’ scaled survey. In K. Murata (Ed.), Waseda working papers in ELF, 4, pp. 89–107.Google Scholar
  60. Tsui, A. B. M., & Tollefson, J. W. (2007). Language policy, culture and identity in Asian contexts. London: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  61. Wang, Y. (2015). A case study of the role of English in a Chinese University. In K. Murata (Ed.), Waseda working papers in ELF, 4, pp. 209–219.Google Scholar
  62. Whorf, B. L. (1956). Language, thought and reality: Selected writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. Edited by J. B. Carroll. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Applied LinguisticsUniversity of HamburgHamburgGermany

Personalised recommendations