Future Water Requirements for Prevailing Cropping Pattern

Part of the SpringerBriefs in Water Science and Technology book series (BRIEFSWATER)


The objective of this chapter was to calculate the values of water consumptive use for the studied crops in the prevailing cropping pattern in 2030 under the effect of climate change in the five agro-climatic zones in Egypt. The projected values of soil temperature on the level of each agro-climatic zone in 2030 revealed that there will be an increasing trend in its value in 2030, compared to its counterpart values in 2015. The highest differences will occur in the summer season from May to September. Whereas, in the winter season, there will be small differences between soil temperature in 2015 and 2030 from September to December, then the difference becomes higher from January to April. Furthermore, soil moisture content in the layer of 0–10 cm in 2030 will be reduced to the degree that it will have the same value in the winter as the summer due to increase in soil evaporation, which will reduce soil moisture content to a very low level. These results were true for the five agro-climatic zones in Egypt. This, in turn, can result in increased water requirements for cultivated crops.


Soil temperature Soil moisture content Climate change Water consumptive use 


  1. Abtew W, Melesse A (2013) Climate change and evapotranspiration. In Evaporation and evapotranspiration: measurements and estimations, Springer Science Business Media Dordrecht. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-4737-113
  2. Attaher S, Medany M, AbdelAziz AA, El-Gendi A (2006) Irrigation-water demands under current and future climate conditions in Egypt. The 14th Annual Conference of the Misr Society of Agricultural. Engineering, pp 1051–1063Google Scholar
  3. Calanca P, Roesch A, Jasper K, Wild M (2006) Global warming and the summertime evapotranspiration regime of the Alpine region. Clim Change 79:65–78. doi: 10.1007/s10584-006-9103-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Döll P (2002) Impact of climate change and variability on irrigation requirements: a global perspective. Clim Change 54:269–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Eid H (2001) Climate change studies on Egyptian Agriculture. Soils, Water and Environment research institute SWERI ARC, Ministry of Agriculture, Giza, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  6. Fujino J, Nair R, Kainuma M, Masui T, Matsuoka Y (2006) Multi-gas mitigation analysis on stabilization scenarios using AIM global model. Multi-gas mitigation and climate policy. Energy J Spec 27:343–353Google Scholar
  7. García-Ruiz JM, López-Moreno JI, Vicente-Serrano SM, Lasanta–Martínez T, Beguería S (2011) Mediterranean water resources in a global change scenario. Earth-Sci Rev 105(3–4):121–139. doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2011.01.006
  8. Hijioka Y, Matsuoka Y, Nishimoto H, Masui M, Kainuma M (2008) Global GHG emissions scenarios under GHG concentration stabilization targets. J Glob Environ Eng 13:97–108Google Scholar
  9. Holden N, Brereton A (2003) Potential impacts of climate change on maize production and the introduction of soybean in Ireland. Irish J Agric Food Res 42:1–15Google Scholar
  10. IPCC (2013) Summary for policymakers. In: Climate change. The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner GK, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  11. Karmakar R, Das I, Dutta D, Rakshit A (2016) Potential effects of climate change on soil properties: a review. Sci Int 4(2):51–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Khalil AA (2013) Effect of climate change on evapotranspiration in Egypt. Researcher 51:7–12Google Scholar
  13. Kimball BA, Kobayashi K, Bindi M (2002) Responses of agricultural crops to free-air CO2 enrichment. Adv Agron 77:293–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lopez-Moreno JI, Beniston M (2009) Daily precipitation intensity projected for the 21st century: seasonal changes over the Pyrenees. Theoret Appl Climatol 95:375–384. doi: 10.1007/s00704-008-0015-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Morsy M (2015) Use of regional climate and crop simulation models to predict wheat and maize productivity and their adaptation under climate change. Ph.D. thesis. Faculty of Science Al-Azhar UniversityGoogle Scholar
  16. Onol B, Semazzi FHM, Unal YS, Dalfes HN (2006) Regional climatic impacts of global warming over the eastern mediterranean. International Conference on Climate Change and the Middle East Past, Present and Future, pp 20–23 November 2006, Istanbul Technical University, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  17. Ouda SA, Khalil F, El Afendi G, Abd El-Hafez SA (2011) Prediction of total water requirements for agriculture in the Arab world under climate change. Proceeding of the 15th International Conference on Water Technology, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  18. Ouda S, Noreldin T (2017) Evapotranspiration data to determine agro-climatic zones in Egypt. J Water Land Dev 32(I–III):79–86Google Scholar
  19. Ouda S, Noreldin T, Hosny M (2016) Evapotranspiration under changing climate. In: Major crops and water scarcity in Egypt. Springer Publishing House, pp 1–22Google Scholar
  20. Ren J, Shen Z, Yang J, Zhao J, Yin J (2014) Effects of temperature and density on hydraulic conductivity of silty clay under infiltration of low-temperature water. Arab J Sci Eng 39:461–466. doi: 10.1007/s13369-013-0849-x
  21. Rustad LE, Huntington TG, Boone RD (2000) Controls on soil respiration: implications for climate change. Biogeochemistry 48:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Seneviratne SI, Corti T, Davin EL, Hirschi M, Jaeger EB, Lehner I, Orlowsky B, Teuling AJ (2010) Investigating soil moisture–climate interactions in a changing climate: a review. Earth Sci Rev 99(3–4):125–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shahid S (2011) Impact of climate change on irrigation water demand of dry season boro rice in Northwest Bangladesh. Clim Change 105:433–453.
  24. Snyder RL, Orang M, Bali K, Eching S (2004) Basic Irrigation Scheduling (BIS).
  25. Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt K, Tignor M, Miller H (eds) (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, p 996Google Scholar
  26. Zohry AA, Ouda S (2016a) Crops intensification to face climate induced water scarcity in Nile Delta region. In: Management of climate induced drought and water scarcity in Egypt: Unconventional Solutions. Springer Publishing HouseGoogle Scholar
  27. Zohry AA, Ouda S (2016b) Upper Egypt: Management of high water consumption crops by intensification. In: Management of climate induced drought and water scarcity in Egypt: Unconventional Solutions. Springer Publishing HouseGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Water Requirements and Field Irrigation Research DepartmentSoils, Water and Environment Research Institute, Agricultural Research CenterGizaEgypt
  2. 2.Astronomy and Meteorology Department, Faculty of Science (Boys)Al-Azhar UniversityCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations