Advertisement

Cropping Pattern to Face Water Scarcity

Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Water Science and Technology book series (BRIEFSWATER)

Abstract

The objective of this chapter is to propose a cropping pattern that uses the amount of irrigation water assigned to agriculture more efficiently and increases food production in the five agro-climatic zones in Egypt. Our results indicated that two cropping patterns can be suggested to face water scarcity. The first cropping pattern will depend on changing crops cultivation method from flat or narrow furrows to raised beds, which will save 20% of the applied irrigation water. This amount will account for 10.0 billion cubic meters on the national level and can be used to cultivate new areas and increase the national cultivated area. The cultivated area under this suggested pattern can increase by 24%, compared to the area cultivated in 2014/15 growing season. The other suggested cropping pattern can be implemented through implementing cultivation on raised bed and polycropping, namely intercropping and cultivation of three crops per year. The cultivated area under this suggested pattern will increase by 53%, compared to the area cultivated in 2014/15 growing season. Both suggested cropping patterns can save on the applied irrigation and consequently increase food production.

Keywords

Water stress Polycropping Intercropping techniques Raised beds cultivation 

References

  1. Abdel-Mawgoud AMR (2006) Growth, yield and quality of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in response to irrigation and compost applications. J Appl Sci 2(7):443–450Google Scholar
  2. Abou Zeid K (2002) Egypt and the world water goals. Egypt statement in the world summit for sustainable development and beyond, Johannesburg, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  3. Abouelenein R, Oweis T, El Sherif M, Awad H, Foaad F, Abd El Hafez S, Hammam A, Karajeh F, Karo M, Linda A (2009) Improving wheat water productivity under different methods of irrigation management and nitrogen fertilizer rates. Egypt J Appl Sci 24(12A):417–431Google Scholar
  4. Aggarwal P, Goswami B (2003) Bed planting system for increasing water use efficiency of Wheat (T. Aestibum) grown in Inseptisol. Indian J Agric Sci 73:422–425Google Scholar
  5. Ahmad IM, Qubal B, Ahmad G, Shah NH (2009) Maize yield, plant tissue and residual soil N as affected by nitrogen management and tillage system. J Agric Biol Sci 1(1):19–29Google Scholar
  6. Amede T, Schubert S (2003) Mechanisms of drought resistance in seed legumes. I. Osmotic adjustment. Ethiop J Sci 26:37–46Google Scholar
  7. Andrade FH, Cirilo AG, Echarte L (2000) Factors affecting kernel number in maize. In: Physiological bases for maize improvement. (Otegui, ME, Slafer GA eds), Aslam M, Zamir MSI, Afzal I, Yaseen M, Mubeen M, Shoaib A). pp 59–74Google Scholar
  8. Ashraf M (1989) Effect of water stress on maize cultivars during the vegetative stage. Artn Arid Zone 28:47–55Google Scholar
  9. Aslam M, Zamir MSI, Afzal I, Yaseen M, Mubeen M, Shoaib A (2013) dought stress, its effect on maize production and development of drought tolerance through potassium application. Cercetări Agronomice în Moldova. XLVI 2(154):347–351Google Scholar
  10. Bakker D, Hamilton M, Hetherington GJ, Spann R (2010) Salinity dynamics and the potential for improvement of water logged and saline land in a Mediterranean climate using permanent raised beds. Soil Tillage Res 110(1):8–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bauder J (2001) Irrigating with limited water supplies. Montana State University Communications Services, Montana Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717, USAGoogle Scholar
  12. Bukhat NM (2005) Studies in yield and yield associated traits of wheat Triticum aestivum L. genotypes under drought conditions. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Agronomy, Sindh Agriculture University, TandojamGoogle Scholar
  13. Carr MKV, Knox JW (2011) The water relations and irrigation requirements of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum): a review. Exp Agric 47:1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chaves MM, Pereira JS, Maroco J, Rodrigues ML, Ricardo CPP, Osório ML, Carvalho I, Faria T, Pinheiro C (2002) How plants cope with water stress in the field? Photosynthesis and growth. Ann Bot. 89(7):907–916CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Cooke R (2012) Water management. In: Illinois agronomy handbook. University of Illinois, USA, pp 143–152Google Scholar
  16. Davidonis GH, Johnson AS, Landivar JA, Fernandez CJ (2004) Cotton fiber quality is related to boll location and planting date. Agron J 96:42–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dencic S, Kastori R, Kobiljski B, Duggan B (2000) Evaporation of’ grain yield and its components in wheat cultivars and land races under near optimal and drought conditions. Euphytica 1:43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dey D, Nath D, Jamatia PB (2015) Effect of raised bed planting method of maize under sandy loam soil of West Tripura. Intern J Appl Res 1(7):561–563Google Scholar
  19. Ethan S, Olagoke O, Yunusa A (2016) Effect of deficit irrigation on growth and yield of sugarcane. Direct Res J Agric Food Sci 4(6):122–126Google Scholar
  20. FAO (2012) FAOSTAT 2012: FAO Statistical database. FAO, Rome. http://faostat.fao.org/site
  21. Gardner FP, Pearce RB, Mitchell RL (1985) Physiology of crop plants. Iowa State University Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  22. Gascho GJ, Shih SF (1983) Sugarcane. In: Teare ID, Peet MM (eds) Crop-water relations. Wiley, New York, pp 445–479Google Scholar
  23. Grzesiak S (2001) Genotypic variation between maize (Zea mays L.) single cross hybrids in response to drought stress. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 23:443–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gupta NK, Gupta S, Kumar A (2001) Effect of water stress on physiological attributes and their relationship with growth and yield in wheat cullivars at different growth stages. J Agron 86(143):7–1439Google Scholar
  25. Harbir S, Ingram KT (2000) Sensitivity of rice Oryza sativa L. to water deficit at three growth stages. Crop Res Hisar 20:355–359Google Scholar
  26. Harbir S, Ingram KT, Jhorar RK (2002) Comparative performance of different water production functions for rice Oryza sativa L. Crop Res Hisar 23:203–213Google Scholar
  27. Heiniger RW (2001) The impact of early drought on corn yield. North Carolina State University. http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/plymouth/cropsci/docs/early_drought_impact_on_corn.html
  28. Hobbs PR, Singh Y, Giri GS, Lauren JG, Duxbury JM (2000) Direct seeding and reduced tillage options in the rice-wheat systems of the Indo-Gangetic plains of South Asia. IRRI workshop, Bangkok, pp 25–26Google Scholar
  29. Hura T, Hura K, Grzesiak M, Rzepka A (2007) Effect of long term drought stress on leaf gas exchange and fluorescence parameters in C3 and C4 plants. Acta Physiol Plant 29:103–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Inman-Bamber NG, Smith DM (2005) Water relations in sugarcane and response to water deficits. Field Crops Res 92:185–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jallas E (1998) Improved model-based decision support by modeling cotton variability and using evolutionary algorithms. Ph.D. dissertation. Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, (Diss. Abstr. 9829786)Google Scholar
  32. Johnson RM, Downer RG, Bradow JM, Bauer PJ, Sadler EJ (2002) Variability in cotton fiber yield, fiber quality, and soil properties in a southeastern coastal plain. Agron J 94:1305–1316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Katerji N, Rana G (2008) Crop evapotranspiration measurement and estimation in the Mediterranean region, ISBN 978 8 89015 2412. INRA-CRA, BariGoogle Scholar
  34. Krieg DR (1997) Genetic and environmental factors affecting productivity of cotton. In: Dugger P, Richter DA. (eds), Proceeding Beltwide Cotton Conference, New Orleans. National Cotton Council America, Memphis, 7–10 Jan, p 1347Google Scholar
  35. Limon-Ortega A, Sayre KD, Drijber RA, Francis CA (2002) Soil attributes in a furrow-irrigated bed planting system in northwest Mexico. Soil Till Res 63:123–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Majeed A, Muhmood A, Niaz A, Javid S, Ahmad ZA, Shah SSH, Shah AH (2015) Bed planting of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) improves nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield compared to flat planting. Crop J 3:118–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Manschadi AM, Sauerborn J, Stutzel H, Gobel W, Saxena MC (1998) Simulation of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) growth and development under Mediterranean conditions: model adaptation and evaluation. Eur J Agron 9:273–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mark W, Rosegrant XC, Cline SA (2002) World water and food to 2025: dealing with scarcity. The International Water Management InstituteGoogle Scholar
  39. McMaster GS (1997) Phonology, development, and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) shoot apex: a review. Adv Agron 59:63–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McWilliams D (2004) Drought strategies for cotton. Cooperative Extension Service Circular 582 College of Agriculture and Home Economics. Available at: http://www.cahe.nmsu.edu/pubs/circulars. (Verified on 15 Oct 2007)
  41. Mert M (2005) Irrigation of cotton cultivars improves seed cotton yield, yield components and fiber properties in the Hatay region, Turkey. Acta Agric Scand B 55:44–50Google Scholar
  42. Mirzaei A, Naseri R, Soleimani R (2011) Response of different growth stages of wheat to moisture tension in a semiarid land. World Appl Sci J 12(1):83–89Google Scholar
  43. Nielsen RL (2007) Assessing effects of drought on corn grain yield. Purdue University, West Lafayette. http://www.kingcorn.org/news/articles.07/Drought-0705.html
  44. Ouda S, Noreldin T (2017) Evapotranspiration data to determine agro-climatic zones in Egypt. J Water Land Dev 32(I–III):79–86Google Scholar
  45. Pantuwan G, Fukai S, Cooper M, Rajatasereekul S, O’Toole JC (2000) Field screening for drought resistance. ACIAR Proceedings No.101. Increased lowland rice production in the Mekong Region. In: Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Vientiane, Laos, 30 Oct–2 Nov 2001, pp 69–77Google Scholar
  46. Ramesh P (2000) Effect of different levels of drought during the formative phase on growth parameters and its relationship with dry matter accumulation in sugarcane. J Agron Crop Sci 185:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ravindra K, Tedia K, Malaiya S, Yerne A (2002) Effect of drought on root and shoot growth, plant water status, canopy temperature and yield of rice. J Soils Crops 12:179–182Google Scholar
  48. Ritchie GL, Bednarz CW, Jost PH, Brown SM (2004) Cotton growth and development. Cooperative Extension Service and the University of Georgia, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. Bulletin 1252Google Scholar
  49. Rosegrant MW, Ringler C, Benson T, Diao X, Resnick D, Thurlow J, Torero M, Orden D (2006) Agriculture and achieving the millennium development goals. The World Bank (Agriculture and Rural Development Department), Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  50. Saxena MC (1991) Status and scope for production of faba bean in Mediterranean countries. Options Méditerranéennes 10:15-20-47Google Scholar
  51. Schussler JR, Westgate ME (1991) Maize kernel set at low water potential: II. Sensitivity to reduceassimilate supply at pollination. Crop Sci 31:1196–1203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sing VK, Dwivedi BS, Shukla AK, Mishra RP (2010) Permanent raised bed planting of the pigeonpea-wheat system on a typic Ustochrept: effects on soil fertility, yield and water and nutrient use efficiencies. Field crops Res 116:127–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Singh S, Rao PNG (1987) Varietal differences in growth characteristics in sugarcane. J Agric Sci 108:245–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Xia MZ (1994) Effects of soil drought during the generative development phase of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) on photosynthetic characters and biomass production. J Agric Sci 122:67–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Younise ID (2002) Effect of water stress at different growth stages on growth and productivity of faba bean (Vicia faba L.). M.Sc. Thesis, University of KhartoumGoogle Scholar
  56. Zareian A, Abad HHS, Hamidi A (2014) Yield, yield components and some physiological traits of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars under drought stress and potassium foliar application treatments. Int J Biosci 4(5):168–175Google Scholar
  57. Zhang J, Sun J, Duan A, Wang J, Shen X, Liu X (2007) Effects on different planting patterns on water use and yield performance of winter wheat in the Huang-Huai-Hai plain of China. Agric Water Manag 92:41–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhang X, Ma L, Gilliam FS, Li QWC (2012) Effects of raised-bed planting for enhanced summer maize yield on rhizosphere soil microbial functional groups and enzyme activity in Henan Province. China. Field Crops Res 130:28–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Water Requirements and Field Irrigation Research DepartmentSoils, Water and Environment Research Institute, Agricultural Research CenterGizaEgypt
  2. 2.Crops Intensification Research DepartmentField Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research CenterGizaEgypt

Personalised recommendations