Conclusion: Two Paths in the Legal Woods

  • Robert N. Spicer


The final chapter offers a brief set of closing thoughts about the state of political deception and potential problems the future might hold. While acknowledging the importance of the First Amendment protection of freedom of speech, this chapter argues that thought must be given to the possibility of regulating false political speech in some manner. Special concern is given to acts of deception in which American operatives engage in collusion with foreign entities and the ways in which technological advances in video and audio editing software create the potential for problematic shenanigans in political campaigns.


Political communication Political philosophy Freedom of speech First Amendment Political power Deception Russia Facebook Adobe VoCo Face2Face Audio and video editing 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert N. Spicer
    • 1
  1. 1.Millersville UniversityMillersvilleUSA

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