Tethered and Implantable Optical Sensors

  • A. J. Thompson
  • Guang-Zhong Yang


Optical imaging and sensing modalities have been used in medical diagnosis for many years. An obvious example is endoscopy, which allows remote wide-field imaging of internal tissues using optical fibers and/or miniature charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras. While techniques such as endoscopy provide useful tools for clinicians, they do not typically allow a complete diagnosis to be made. Instead, physical biopsies may be required to confirm or refute the presence of disease. Furthermore, endoscopic procedures are both invasive and time-consuming. As such, much research is currently directed toward the development of devices that can provide a complete in vivo diagnosis without the requirement for a physical biopsy. Ideally, such devices should also be minimally or non-invasive, and they should provide immediate identification of disease at the point of care. Additionally, there is significant interest in the development of implantable diagnostic devices that can be left within patients’ bodies for extended periods of time (for several days or longer). Such systems could be used for automated disease diagnosis, and example applications include the detection of post-surgical infections as well as monitoring of the health status of patients undergoing chemotherapy. This chapter focuses on the development of optical instruments that can provide in situ diagnosis at the point of care, with an emphasis on progress towards miniature devices that may function as implants in the future.

List of Acronyms


Autofluorescence imaging


Age-related macular degeneration




Application-specific integrated circuit


Barrett’s Esophagus


Charge-coupled device




Continuous wave






Inflammatory bowel disease


Intraocular lens




Linear discriminant analysis


Light-emitting diode


Laser speckle imaging


Laser speckle rheology




Optical coherence tomography


Optical frequency domain imaging


Principal components analysis




Protoporphyrin IX


Pulse transit time


Pulse wave velocity




Retinal ganglion cell


Retinitis pigmentosa


Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy


Scanning electron microscopy


Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy


Spatial light modulator


Signal-to-noise ratio


Oxygen saturation


Surgical site infection


Tethered capsule endomicroscopy


Urinary tract infection


Visual-evoked potential


Visual processing unit








5-aminolevulinic acid


Micro-scale light-emitting diode


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Hamlyn CentreImperial College LondonLondonUK

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