Electrical and Physical Sensors for Biomedical Implants

  • P. Kassanos
  • S. Anastasova
  • Guang-Zhong Yang


In addition to the electrochemical sensors discussed in Chap.  2, a range of other sensing modalities are also important for biomedical and implantable applications. The frequency-dependent electrical properties of tissues are essential for assessing various physiological parameters. This, for example, can be quantified via electrical bioimpedance measurements, which can be combined and corroborated with electrochemical sensors. The human body is a dynamic system in constant motion; therefore, sensors for the measurement of physical properties such as strain and pressure are also important. Sensors for these applications rely on the measurement of resistance, capacitance, and sometimes inductance, and these will also be discussed in this chapter for completeness. Temperature is an important health marker for various applications, and consequently the current state of the art in temperature sensors is also discussed, in terms of both monolithic integration and discrete sensor solutions. Monitoring of the electrical response of the nervous system and the delivery of stimuli represent an important family of applications for neuroscience research and neuroprosthetic devices. These will be addressed in this chapter, along with various application scenarios. Other aspects to be discussed include sensor metrics, such as sensitivity, limit of detection, stability, linear range, selectivity, and specificity.

List of Acronyms


Ascorbic acid


Alternating current


Amplitude modulation


Anisotropic magnetoresistance


Application specific integrated circuit


Adenosine triphosphate


Ball grid array


Bipolar junction transistor


Bandpass filter


Crest factor


Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia


Conformal mapping


Carbon nanotube


Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor


Common-mode rejection ratio


Complementary to absolute temperature


Cardiovascular disease


Digital-to-analog converter


Deep brain stimulation


Direct current


Direct digital synthesis


Discrete interval binary sequence


Electrical impedance spectroscopy


Electrical impedance tomography


External ventricular drain


Finite element method


Field-effect transistor


Fast Fourier transform


Freezing of gait


Field programmable gate arrays


Gauge factor




Giant magnetoresistance


Glucose oxidase




High-pass filter




Intracranial pressure


Intraocular pressure


Ion selective electrode


Ion-sensitive field-effect transistor


Limit of detection


Low-pass filter




Micro-electro-mechanical systems


Maximum length binary sequence


Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor


Multi-walled carbon nanotube




Normal mode rejection ratio


Negative temperature coefficient


Operational transconductance amplifier


Patient auxiliary currents


Printed circuit board




Poly (ethylene naphthalate)


Polyethylene terephthalate




Prostate specific antigen


Proportional to absolute temperature




Reference electrode


Radio frequency


Root mean square


Resonance response frequency


Resistance temperature detector


Surface acoustic wave


Synchronous demodulation


Scanning electron microscope


Series mode rejection ratio


Signal to noise ratio




Superconducting quantum interference devices


Sphincter of Oddi


Sphincter of Oddi manometry


Split ring resonator


Synchronous sampling


Single stranded deoxyribonucleic acid


Surgical site infection


Single-walled carbon nanotube


Temperature coefficient of resistance


Transrectal ultrasound


Uric acid


Voltage controlled current source


Vestibulo-ocular reflex


Zero-order hold


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Hamlyn CentreImperial College LondonLondonUK

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