Electrochemical Sensor Designs for Biomedical Implants

  • S. Anastasova
  • P. Kassanos
  • Guang-Zhong Yang


The need to record directly the sensing target of interest in the vicinity of where a physiological and clinically relevant event takes place, rather than indirectly or through surrogate measures, has led to the need for implantable monitoring devices. In addition to ensuring the sensitivity and specificity of sensor responses, issues related to sensor fouling, drift, biocompatibility, and hermeticity of the packaging are important considerations. This chapter examines the current state of the art of sensing techniques, focusing on electrochemical methods (potentiometry, amperometry, and voltammetry), due to their simplicity in design and fabrication [1], as well as low-power operation.

List of Acronyms


Anodic iridium oxide film


Aluminium oxide


Adenosine triphosphate


Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor


Central nervous system




Electrostatic discharge


Finite element analysis


Field-effect transistor


Floating-gate MOS




Gastroesophageal reflux disease

GI tract

Gastro intestinal tract


Iridium oxide


Ion-selective electrode


Ion-sensitive field-effect transistor


Low pressure chemical vapour deposition


Linear polyethylenimine polymer


Low-pass filter


Linear polypropyleneimine polymer






Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor


Multi-walled carbon nanotubes


N-type metal-oxide-semiconductor


Open circuit potential


2-nitrophenyloctyl ether


Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)


Low temperature chemical vapour deposition


Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polymer


Poly(ethylene glycol)


P-type metal-oxide-semiconductor




Reference electrode


Reference FET


Silicon nitride


Sputtered Ir(Ox) films


Single-nucleotide polymorphism


Single-Stranded Deoxyribonucleic acid


Tantalum oxide

UV exposure

Ultraviolet exposure


Working electrode


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Hamlyn CentreImperial College LondonLondonUK

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