Optical Anisotropy and Compositional Ratio of Conductive Polymer PEDOT:PSS and Their Effect on Photovoltaic Performance of Crystalline Silicon/Organic Heterojunction Solar Cells

  • Hajime Shirai
  • Qiming Liu
  • Tatsuya Ohki
  • Ryo Ishikawa
  • Keiji Ueno


We demonstrate the optical anisotropy of a transparent conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and its effect on the photovoltaic performance of n-type crystalline silicon (n-Si)/PEDOT:PSS heterojunction solar cells. The depth profile of PEDOT/PSS compositional ratio and optical anisotropy depends on the type of polar solvent and/or external DC bias supplied to n-Si substrate during film deposition by spin coating (SC) and chemical mist deposition (CMD). N-Si/PEDOT:PSS heterojunction solar cells with higher PEDOT/PSS compositional ratio near the film surface exhibited better power conversion efficiency η of 12.5% (@2 × 2 cm2) without any light harvesting techniques. In this chapter, the correlation among the optical anisotropy, the depth profile of PEDOT/PSS compositional ratio in conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS, and the photovoltaic performance of n-Si/PEDOT:PSS heterojunction solar cells is demonstrated.



This study was partially supported by a grant from the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. The authors wish to express their appreciation to Mr. Masayuki Sakurai and Mrs. Yoko Wasai of Horiba-Jobin Yvon Ltd., for the SE measurements. The authors also thank Mrs. Takashi Miyamoto and Koji Funato of Tokyo Direc Co. Ltd., for the allowance of the use of differential mobility analyzer. The one of authors (HS) wish to thank my colleague, Drs. Ishwor Khatri, Jaker Hossain, and Mrs. Shuji Funada, Koki Ichikawa, Kyohei Watanabe, Taiga Hiate, Kyohei Ishikawa, and Yoshinori Imamura for their efforts to this study.


  1. 1.
    P.J. Cousins, D.D. Smith, H.C. Luan, J. Manning, T.D. Dennis, A. Waldhauer, K.E. Wilson, G. Harlrey, G.P. Muligan Gen III in Proceedings of the 35th IEE. Photovoltaic specialist conference, Honolulu, USA, p. 275–278 (2010)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Kinoshita, D. Fujishima, A. Yano, A. Ogane, S. Tohoda, K. Matsuyama, Y. Nakamura, N. Tokuoka, H. Kanno, H. Sakata, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, Y. Nakamura In: Proceedings of the 26th European photovoltaic solar energy conference, Hamburg, Germany, p. 871 (2011)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Y. Tsunomura, Y. Yoshimine, M. Taguchi, T. Baba, T. Kinoshita, H. Kanno, H. Sakata, E. Maruyama, M. Tanaka, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 96, 032105 (2010)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Q. Wang, M.R. Page, E. Iwanicko, Y. Xu, L. Royabal, R. Bauer, B. To, H.–.C. Yuan, A. Duda, F. Hasioon, Y.F. Yan, D. Levi, D. Meier, H.M. Branz, T.H. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 013507 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. Masuko, IEEE J.Photovoltaics 4, 1433 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    N. Mingirulli, J. Haschke, R. Gogolin, R. Ferré, T. Schulze, J. Düsterholt, N.-P. Harder, L. Korte, R. Gogolin, R. Rech, Phys. Status Solidi RPL 5, 159 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. He, C. Jiang, H. Wang, D. Lai, Rusli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 073503 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    I. Khatri, Z. Tang, Q. Liu, R. Ishikawa, K. Ueno, H. Shirai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 063508 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Z. Tang, Q. Liu, I. Khatri, R. Ishikawa, K. Ueno, H. Shirai, Phys. Status Solidi C9, 2075 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.Y. Chen, M.-H. Yu, S.-F. Chang, K.W. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 133901 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Elschner, S. Kirchmeyer, W. Lovenich, U. Merkerm, K. Reuter, PEDOT -Principle and Applications of an Intrinsically Conductive Polymer (CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, New York, 2011)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Y. Xia, J. Ouyang, J. Mater. Chem. 21, 4297 (2011)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    H. Okuzaki, M. Ishihara, S. Ashizawa, Synth. Met. 137, 947 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. Zielke, C. Niehaves, W. Lövenicj, A. Elschner, M. Hörteis, J. Schmidt, Ener Procedia 77, 331 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Jäckle, M. Mattiza, M. Liebhaber, G. Bronstrup, M. Rommel, K. Lips, S. Christiansen, Sci. Rep. 13008 (2015)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. Zielke, A. Pazidis, F. Wernet, J. Schmidt, Sol. Ener. Mater. & Sol. Cells 131, 110 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Y. Xia, K. Sun, J. Ouyang, Adv. Mater. 24, 2436 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    N. Kim, S. Kee, S.H. Lee, B.H. Lee, Y.H. Kahung, Y.-R. Jo, B.-J. Kim, K. Lee, Adv. Mater. 26(14), 2268–2272, 2109 (2014)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Mukher, R. Singh, S. Gopinathan, S. Murugan, S. Gawali, B. Saha, J. Biswas, S. Lodha, A. Kumar, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 17792–17803 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    L.A.A. Pettersson, F. Carlsson, O. Inagäs, H. Arwin, Thin Solid Films 313-314, 356 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    L.A.A. Pettersson, S. Ghosh, O. Inagäs, Org. Electron. 3, 143 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Q. Liu, M. Ono, Z. Tang, R. Ishikawa, K. Ueno, H. Shirai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 183901 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    X. Crispin, F.L. Kakobsson, A. Crispin, P.C. Grim, P. Andersson, A. Volodin, C. van Hasendonck, N. Van der Auweraer, W.R. Salaneck, M. Berggren, Chem. Mater. 18, 4354 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    H. Okuzaki, Y. Harashina, Eur. Polym. J. 45, 256 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    T.J. Wang, Y.Q. Qi, J.K. Xu, X.J. Hu, P. Chen, Appl. Surf. Sci. 250, 188 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, Phys. Rev. B71, 075109 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Yamashita, C. Otani, M. Shimizu, H. Okuzaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 143307 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    E. Shanthi, V. Dutta, A. Banerjee, K.L. Chopra, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 6243 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. Hossain, T. Ohki, K. Ichikawa, K. Fujiyama, K. Ueno, Y. Fujii, T. Hanajiri, H. Shirai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 061602 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    K. Fujita, T. Ishikawa, T. Tsutsumi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L70 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    X. Mo, T. Mizukoshi, A. Kobayashi, G. Chen, N. Tanigaki, H. Hiraga, Thin Solid Films 516, 1663 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    T. Fukuda, T. Suzuki, R. Kobayashi, Z. Honda, N. Kamata, Thin Solid Films 518, 575 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    T. Hiate, T. Ino, R. Ishikawa, K. Ueno, H. Shirai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 10NE30 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Y. Kamada, T. Kahaharamura, H. Nishinaka, S. Fujita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L857 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    J.-Q. Lu, T. Kawaharamura, H. Nishinaka, Y. Kamada, T. Ohshima, S. Fujita, J. Cryst. Growth 299(1), 1–10 (2007)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Y. Kamada, T. Kawaharamura, H. Nishinaka, S. Fujita, Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. 957, K07–K27 (2007)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    H. Nishinaka, T. Kawaharamura, S. Fujita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 6811 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    T. Ino, M. Ono, N. Miyauchi, Q. Liu, Z. Tang, R. Ishikawa, K. Ueno, H. Shirai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 061602 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    A. Uehara, The technical report in CHALLENGE Co. Ltd. (2010)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    I. Khatri, T. Imamura, A. Uehara, R. Ishikawa, K. Ueno, H. Shirai, Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 2134 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    K. Shanmugasundaram, A study of the mist deposition and pattering of liquid precursor thin films, Doctor thesis in The Pennsylvania State University (2008)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    T. Hiate, N. Miyauchi, Q. Liu, R. Ishikawa, K. Ueno, H. Shirai, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 123514 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    P.J. Flory, Principles of Polymer Chemistry (Cornell University Press, New York, 1953)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    B. Vollmert, Polymer Chemistry (Springer, Berlin, 1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hajime Shirai
    • 1
  • Qiming Liu
    • 1
  • Tatsuya Ohki
    • 1
  • Ryo Ishikawa
    • 1
  • Keiji Ueno
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of Science and EngineeringSaitama UniversitySaitamaJapan

Personalised recommendations