Other Techniques Based on the Contacting Probe

  • Selahattin Sayil


As technology scaling continues, chip testing becomes more complex and challenging. Testing techniques in general can be grouped as functional and structural or defect-based testing techniques. A functional test applies predetermined set of patterns at the inputs of an integrated circuit and compares to the expected responses. The goal is to verify the functionality of the chip under test. Structural tests, on the other hand, target on the defect detection using circuit structure. These may include tests based on stuck-at faults, delay tests, and tests based on quiescent current (IDDQ) and transient current (IDDT) detection. This chapter covers IDDQ and IDDT test methods adopted by industry and discusses on shortcomings. The remainder of this chapter describes photoconductive sampling probe (PC probe). PC probe uses laser beam to activate test inputs and to sample test outputs and nonetheless requires a hard probe to make contact with the metallization line. Since it is clearly not a contactless testing approach, this method is covered in this chapter.


IDDQ testing IDDT testing Photoconductive sampling PC probe Flexible PC probe 


  1. 1.
    F. Wanlass, C. Sah, Nanowatt logic using field-effect metal-oxide semiconductor triodes, in Proceedings of Solid State Circuits Conference, Pennsylvania, February 1963, pp. 32–33Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Levi, CMOS is most testable, in Proceedings of International Test Conference, Philadelphia, October 1981, pp. 217–220Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R.Z. Makki, S. Su, T. Nagle, Transient power supply current testing of digital CMOS Circuits, in Proceedings of IEEE International Test Conference, Washington, DC, 1995, pp. 892–901Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Ishida, D.S. Ha, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Hashimoto, T. Ohmi, IDDT testing: an efficient method for detecting delay faults and open defects, in IEEE International Workshop on Defect Based Testing, Los Angeles, April 2001Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.B. Marcus, Measurement of High-Speed Signals in Solid State Devices. Semiconductors and Semimetals, vol. 28 (Academic, Boston, 1990). (Book)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    W.R. Eisenstadt, R.B. Hammond, On chip picosecond time domain measurements for VLSI and interconnect testing using photoconductors. IEEE Trans. Electron Devices Ed-32(2), 364–369 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    D.H. Auston, Picosecond optoelectronic switching and gating in silicon. Appl. Phys. Lett. 26(3), 101–103 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R.B. Hammond, D.R. Bowman, Polycrystalline-Si integrated photo-conductors for picosecond gating and pulsing. IEEE Electron Device Lett. edl-6(10), 502–504 (1985)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    H.M. Heiligier, T. Pfeifer, External photoconductive switches as generators and detectors of ps electrical transients. Microelectron. Eng. 31, 415–426 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    T. Pfeifer, Generation and detection of picosecond electric pulses with freely positionable photoconductive probes. IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2856–2861 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Kim et al., Photoconductive sampling probe with 2.3 ps temporal resolution and 4 uV sensitivity. Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(18), 2268–2270 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Kim et al., Time-domain network analysis of mm-wave circuits based on a photoconductive probe sampling technique. IEEE MTT-S Digest 3, 1359–1362 (1993)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Selahattin Sayil
    • 1
  1. 1.Lamar UniversityBeaumontUSA

Personalised recommendations