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Pulmonary Complications of Malignancies and Blood and Marrow Transplantation

  • Geshani Jayasuriya
  • Beryl Lin
  • Steven J. Keogh
  • Hiran Selvadurai
Chapter
Part of the Respiratory Medicine book series (RM)

Abstract

Advances in childhood cancer therapies and blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) have dramatically improved survival in the past decade, with 5-year survival now approaching 85% (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Cancer in Australia: an overview 2014. Cancer series no 90 Cat no CAN 88 Canberra, AIHW2014). Pulmonary complications however remain an important cause of short- and long-term morbidity and mortality in childhood malignancies (Meyer et al., Pediatr Hematol Oncol 21(2):175–195, 2004; Jenney, Paediatr Respir Rev 1(3):279–286, 2000). The development of acute respiratory complications should prompt consideration of a wide range of differentials as appropriate management can be a major predictor of survival, especially in children undergoing BMT (Meyer et al., Pediatr Hematol Oncol 21(2):175–195, 2004; McCahon, Paediatr Respir Rev 7(3):191–196, 2006; Krowka et al., Chest 87(2):237–246, 1985). In childhood cancer survivors, permanent and late-onset respiratory dysfunction have been found in up to 45% of patients and continue to have important impacts on quality of life and premature mortality (Mertens et al., Cancer 95(11):2431–2441, 2002; Versluys and Bresters, Paediatr Respir Rev 17:63–70, 2015; Huang et al., Chest 140(4):881–901, 2011; Mulder et al., Thorax 66(12):1065–1071, 2011). This chapter provides an overview of respiratory complications of childhood cancer and BMT, with a focus on mechanisms of injury.

Keywords

Children Lung tumours Leukaemia Bone marrow transplant Chemotherapy complications 

Abbreviations

AIP

Acute interstitial pneumonitis

ALL

Acute lymphoblastic anaemia

AML

Acute myeloid leukaemia

APL

Acute promyelocytic leukaemia

ARDS

Acute respiratory distress syndrome

BMT

Bone marrow transplantation

BOOP

Bronchiolitis obliterans with organising pneumonia

BOS

Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome

CBO

Constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans

cGVHD

Chronic graft-versus-host disease

CMV

Cytomegalovirus

COP

Cryptogenic organising pneumonia

DAH

Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage

DLCO

Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide

EBV

Epstein-Barr virus

GVHD

Graft-versus-host disease

HL

Hodgkin lymphoma

IPS

Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome

LCH

Langerhans cell histiocytosis

MPS

Mucopolysaccharidosis

NCPE

Non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema

PAH

Pulmonary arterial hypertension

PAWP

Pulmonary artery wedge pressure

PERDS

Peri-engraftment respiratory distress syndrome

PH

Pulmonary hypertension

PTLD

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease

PVOD

Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease

SVC

Superior vena cava

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geshani Jayasuriya
    • 1
    • 2
  • Beryl Lin
    • 3
  • Steven J. Keogh
    • 2
    • 4
  • Hiran Selvadurai
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Respiratory MedicineThe Children’s HospitalSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Discipline of Child and Adolescent HealthThe University of SydneyCamperdownAustralia
  3. 3.The University of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  4. 4.Department of OncologyThe Children’s HospitalSydneyAustralia

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