The Fundaments of Intelligence in the Future Health Policy



This concluding chapter summarises the main contents of this book. It presents, in short, the main ten fundaments of the intelligence of health policy—deployable to other fields of public policies as well—divided in four cohorts of fundaments. These cohorts are orchestrated as contextual, conceptual, service-related and leadership-related fundaments. By fundament, we refer here to theoretical cornerstones—axioms or established principles if you like—of why and how we think intelligence will be rooted in the public policies of today and especially in the future. In our approach, contextual fundaments (i.e. the complexity of the society and societal change, the evolution of institutions, horizontal accountability and the value of increased public value in terms of legitimation of public policies) shape the societal setting for planning, running and evaluating health policy; conceptual fundaments (i.e. systems thinking, loosely coupled systems, open innovations, knowledge and agency) create and regulate the structure and the functioning logic of the public policy system; service-related fundaments (i.e. the service dominant—logic and value co-creation) reframe the production logic of public goods and services and heighten the role of service users in the heart of the health policy; and leadership-related fundaments (i.e. knowledge sharing and policy integration and new forms of public sector leadership) provide the practical functioning logic for the health policy actors and interventions. This final chapter of this book outlines these fundaments, providing short commentaries for each of the fundaments (and their sub-criteria) addressed.


  1. Ashby RW (1991) Requisite variety and its implications for the control of complex systems. In: Klir GJ (ed) Facets of systems science. Kluwer, New York, pp 405–417 (originally published in 1958)Google Scholar
  2. Boisot M, McKelvey B (2011) Connectivity, extremes, and adaptation: a power-law perspective of organizational effectiveness. Organ Inq 20(2):119–133Google Scholar
  3. Dorsey ER, Ritzer G (2016) The Mcdonaldization of medicine. JAMA Neurol 73(1):15–16CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Doz Y, Kosonen M (2008) Fast strategy: how strategic agility will help you to stay ahead of the game. Wharton School Publishing, HarlowGoogle Scholar
  5. Doz Y, Kosonen M (2010) Embedding strategic agility: a leadership agenda for accelerating business model renewal. Long Range Plan 43(2–3):370–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Doz Y, Kosonen M (2014) Governments for the future. Building an agile and strategic state. Sitra, Helsinki, p 80Google Scholar
  7. Doz Y, Kosonen M, Virtanen P (2017) Agile government and public administration? Article manuscript (In press)Google Scholar
  8. Kim S, Vandenabeele W, Wright BE, Bøgh Andersen L, Cerase FB, Christensen RK, Desmarais C, Koumenta M, Leisink P, Liu B (2013) Investigating the structure and meaning of public service motivation across populations: developing an international instrument and addressing the issues pf measurement invariance. J Public Adm Resour Theory 23(1):79–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. King A, Crewe I (2013) The blunders of our governments. Oneworld, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Mulgan G (2009) The art of public strategy: mobilizing power and knowledge for the common good. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  11. OECD (2017) Working with change: systems approaches to public sector challenges. GOV/PGC 2017/2. OECD Publishing, ParisGoogle Scholar
  12. Osborne S, Radnon Z, Nasi G (2013) A new theory for public service management? Towards a (public) service-dominant approach. Am Rev Public Adm 43(2):135–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Perry JL, Wise LR (1990) The motivational bases of public service. Public Adm Rev 50(3):367–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ritzer G (2015) The dehumanized consumer: does the prosumer offer some hope? In: García Martínez AN (ed) Being human in a consumer society. Ashgate, New York, pp 25–40Google Scholar
  15. Ritzer G, Dean P (2015) Globalisation. A basic text. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Stenvall J, Virtanen P (2012) Sosiaali- ja terveyspalvelujen uudistaminen [available only in Finnish, The development of social and healthcare services]. Tietosanoma, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  17. Vargo SL, Lusch RF (2014) Inversions of service-dominant logic. Mark Theory 14(3):239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Vargo SL, Lusch RF (2015) Institutions and axioms: an extension and update of service-dominant logic. J Acad Mark Sci 44(1):5–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Vargo SL, Wieland H, Akaka M (2016) Innovation in service ecosystems. J Serviceol 1(1):1–5Google Scholar
  20. Virtanen P, Stenvall J (2014) The evolution of public services from co-production to co-creation and beyond – an unfinished trajectory for the New Public Management? Int J Leadersh Public Serv 10(2):91–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Virtanen P, Kaivo-oja J, Ishino Y, Stenvall J, Jalonen H (2016a) Ubiquitous revolution, customer needs and business intelligence. Empirical evidence from Japanese healthcare sector. Int J Web Eng Technol 11(3):259–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Finnish Innovation Fund SITRAHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.School of ManagementUniversity of TampereTampereFinland

Personalised recommendations