Intelligence in Public Policy



This section of the book is especially based on the latest literature on public policy analysis. It discusses broadly the current challenges in organising and running public policies and health policy in particular. We argue that there is a lot of talk about complexity in society, but there is eventually little evidence on what actually constitutes this complexity and how public policies deal with the complexity domain. Moreover, it seems that the problem of existing policy-planning mechanisms and public policy-evaluation paradigms is that they do not fit in with, in particular, the current societal challenges and nexus problems (embedded and constructed somewhere in between existing policy areas). This, in turn, means that there is an urgent need to constitute new kinds of evaluation systems incorporated with the idea of intelligent public policy making. This calls for new methods and methodologies, new institutional settings for evaluation systems and new accountability understanding. This part of the book deals with what the promotion of intelligence presupposes from the perspectives of public policy, decision-making, implementation and evaluation. The starting point in our reasoning is especially knowledge management and decision-making procedures at the level of health policy. In this chapter, we discuss issues like forecasting and the urgent need to develop specific ex ante evaluation methods and procedures, and it underlines putting an emphasis on forecasting societal and health policy-related problems instead of ex post trials. As a result, we argue that a new governance model is evolving within the complexity framework: the New Public Integration. Moreover, this chapter analyses the emergence of new information bases for health policy and the role of big data and the Internet of (Intelligent) Things in particular.


  1. Acemoglu D, Robinson JA, Verdier T (2012) Can’t we all be more like scandinavians? Asymmetric growth and institutions in an interdependent world (No. w18441). National Bureau of Economic ResearchGoogle Scholar
  2. Acheson ED (1988) Public health in England. Report of the committee of enquiry into the future development of the public health function. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. Beard HP, Bloom DE (2015) Towards a comprehensive public health response to population ageing. Lancet 385(9968):658–661CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bemelmans-Videc M, Rist RC, Vedung E (eds) (1998) Carrots, sticks, and sermons. Policy instruments and their evaluation. Transaction, New BrunswickGoogle Scholar
  5. Berlan D, Buse K, Shiffman J, Tanaka S (2014) The bit in the middle: a synthesis of global health literature on policy formulation and adoption. Health Policy Plan 29(suppl_3):iii23–iii34CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Birkland TA (2016) An introduction to the policy process. Theories, concepts and models of public policy making. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Brownson RC, Baker EA, Deshpande AD, Gillespie KN (2017) Evidence-based public health. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  8. Cohen MD, March JG, Olsen JP (1972) A garbage can model of organizational choice. Adm Sci Q 17(1):1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Colander D, Kupers R (2014) Complexity and the art of public policy. Solving society’s problems from the bottom up. Princetown University Press, PrincetownCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davies SC, Winpenny E, Ball S, Fowler T, Rubin J, Nolte E (2014) For debate: a new wave in public health improvement. Lancet 384(9957):1889–1895CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Dror Y (2001) The capacity to govern. Frank Cass, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Easton D (1965) A system analysis of political life. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Embrett MG, Randall GE (2014) Social determinants of health and health equity policy research: exploring the use, misuse, and nonuse of policy analysis theory. Soc Sci Med 108:147–155CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Fischer F (2003) Reframing public policy: discursive politics and deliberative practices. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Frenk J, Moon S (2013) Governance challenges in global health. N Engl J Med 368(10):936–942CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Gauld R (2009) The new health policy. McGraw-Hill Education, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Gerston L (2015) Public policy making: process and principles. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Hall P (1993) Policy paradigms, social learning, and the state: the case of economic policymaking in Britain. Comp Polit 25(3):275–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hill M (2014) Policy process: a reader. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Ikeda N, Saito E, Inoue M, Ikeda S, Satoh T, Wada K, Stickley A, Katanoda K, Mizoue T, Noda M, Iso H, Fujino Y, Sobue T, Tsugane S, Naghavi M, Ezatti M, Shibuya K (2011) What has made the population of Japan healthy? Lancet 378(9796):1094–1105CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Immergut EM (1992) Health politics: interests and institutions in Western Europe. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  22. Jacobsson B, Sundström J (2015) Governing the state. In: Pierre J (ed) The Oxford handbook of Swedish politics. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 347–361Google Scholar
  23. Jann W, Wegrich K (2007) Theories of the policy cycle. In: Fischer F, Miller Gand M (eds) Handbook of public policy analysis: theory, politics and methods. CRC, Boca Raton, FL, pp 43–62Google Scholar
  24. Klijn EH, Koppenjan J (2016) Governance networks in the public sector. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Kuoppakangas P (2015) Decision-making and choice in the adoption of a municipal enterprise form in public sector healthcare organisations – Reasoning, goals, legitimacy and core dilemmas. Turku School of Economics in the University of Turku, Doctoral dissertation A-9: 2015, Juvenes Print, TurkuGoogle Scholar
  26. Larson MS (1977) The rise of professionalism. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  27. Lascoumes P, LeGales P (2007) Introduction: understanding public policy through its instruments—from the nature of instruments to the sociology of public policy instrumentation. Governance 20(1):1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Law C (2010) Policy and evidence based public health. In: Looran A, Kelly M (eds) Evidence based policy public health. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 16–26Google Scholar
  29. Lindblom C (1965) The intelligence of democracy: decision making through mutual adjustment. The Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Lipsky M (1980) Street-level bureaucracy. Dilemmas of individual in public service. Russell Sage Foundation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Machenbach JP, McKee M (2015) Government, politics and health policy: a quantitative analysis of 30 European countries. Health Policy 119(10):1298–1308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McQeen DV (2010) Ethics and evidence in health promotion. In: Looran A, Kelly M (eds) Evidence based policy public health. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 27–42Google Scholar
  33. Miller AR, Tucker C (2014) Health information exchange, system size and information silos. J Health Econ 33:28–42CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Mintzberg H, Raisinghani D, Theoret A (1976) The structure of “unstructured” decision processes. Adm Sci Q 21:246–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Murray E (1971) Politics as symbolic action. Markham, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  36. Muzio D, Brock DM, Suddaby R (2013) Professions and institutional change: towards an institutionalist sociology of the professions. J Manag Stud 50(5):699–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Osborne S, Radnon Z, Nasi G (2013) A new theory for public service management? Towards a (public) service-dominant approach. Am Rev Public Adm 43(2):135–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pang Z, Zheng L, Tian J, Kao-Walter S, Dubrova E, Chen Q (2015) Design of a terminal solution for integration of in-home health care devices and services towards the internet-of-things. Enterp Inf Syst 9(1):86–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pierre J (2011) The politics of urban governance. Palgrave Macmillan, BasingstokeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pressman JL, Wildavsky AB (1984) Implementation: how great expectations in Washington are dashed in Oakland: or, why it’s amazing that federal programs work at all, this being a saga of the Economic Development Administration as told by two sympathetic observers who seek to build morals on a foundation of ruined hopes. University of California Press, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  41. Purtilo RB, Doherty RF (2016) Ethical dimensions in the health professions. Elsevier Health Sciences, MissouriGoogle Scholar
  42. Ranade W, Hudson B (2003) Conceptual issues in inter-agency collaboration. Local Gov Stud 29(3):32–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rosen G (2015) A history of public health. JHU Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  44. Scott WR (2013) Institutions and organizations: ideas, interests, and identities. Sage, Los Angeles, CAGoogle Scholar
  45. Shiba N, Shimokawa H (2008) Chronic heart failure in Japan: implications of the CHART studies. Vasc Health Risk Manag 4(1):103–113CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Smith K (2013) Beyond evidence based policy in public health: the interplay of ideas. Palgrave Macmillan, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tenbensel T (2016) Complexity and health policy. In: Geyer R, Cairney P (eds) Complexity and public policy. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp 369–383Google Scholar
  48. Tuurnas S, Stenvall J, Rannisto PH (2015) The impact of co-production on frontline accountability: the case of conciliation service. Int Rev Adm Sci 82:131–149., first published on July 2, 2015
  49. Virtanen P, Stenvall J (2014) The evolution of public services from co-production to co-creation and beyond – an unfinished trajectory for the New Public Management? Int J Leadersh Public Serv 10(2):91–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Virtanen P, Uusikylä P (2004) Exploring the missing links between cause and effect. A conceptual framework for understanding micro-macro conversions in programme evaluation. Evaluation 1(10):77–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Virtanen P, Kaivo-oja J, Ishino Y, Stenvall J, Jalonen H (2016a) Ubiquitous revolution, customer needs and business intelligence. Empirical evidence from Japanese healthcare sector. Int J Web Eng Technol 11(3):259–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Virtanen P, Laitinen I, Stenvall J (2016b) Street-level bureaucrats as strategy shapers in social and health service delivery: empirical evidence from six countries. Int Soc Work 16(3):1–14. Google Scholar
  53. Virtanen P, Uusikylä P, Jalava J, Tiihonen S, Laitinen L, Noro K (2016c) Valtioneuvoston yhtenäisyys – kansainvälinen vertaileva tutkimus [available in only in Fiinish, The unity of government – an international comparative study]. Valtioneuvoston kanslia, Helsinki. Accessed at
  54. Weissert WG, Weissert CS (2012) Governing health. The politics of health policy. The Johns Hopkins University Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Finnish Innovation Fund SITRAHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.School of ManagementUniversity of TampereTampereFinland

Personalised recommendations