Layered Catalyst Compositions for Photo-Treating of Industrial Effluents

Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)


A highly active catalyst is required in chemical industries’l applications to significantly optimize the potential and the reaction rate of reaction. Much attention has, therefore, been paid to apply the heterogeneous catalysis system, with the objectives to optiize the catalytic selectivity and ease the separation process. Nevertheless, there are still great challenges to significantly increase the catalytic activities of heterogeneous catalysis which includes conductivity, stability, separation electrochemically active surface area, intrinsic catalytic activities, electronic structure, charge transport phase, diffusion rate, and resistance. Therefore, layered heterogeneous catalysis system has been attracted some interests owing to its unique architectures, synergistic effects, mechanical stability and electronic structure/interactions. This chapter highlights the important, general principle, material design, and hypothesis of layered catalysis system. The intrinsic properties, characterization, and catalytic activities of layered catalysis have been further discussed with regards to different categories including metal/metal oxide-layered catalyst, hydroxide-layered catalyst, nanocarbon-layered catalyst and clay-layered catalyst. Several examples of chemical industry applications of layered catalysts, including hydrocarbon oxidation, water oxidation, hydrocarbon reformation, hydrocarbon esterification, hydrocarbon cracking, and glucose production, synthesis of nanocarbon, and production of biaryl compounds have been brought in detail.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli
    • 1
  • Samira Bagheri
    • 1
  1. 1.Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research CentreUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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