Advertisement

Inter-cultural Training

Chapter
  • 790 Downloads
Part of the International and Cultural Psychology book series (ICUP)

Abstract

In order to address the challenges and positive possibilities inherent in inter-cultural interactions a variety of training methods have been developed. This chapter will briefly survey the field of intercultural sensitivity training programs and will focus on intercultural simulations as a method used to replicate real intercultural interactions in a game-like context to provide an experiential understanding of the nature of culture and the sources of error embedded in the dynamics of intercultural interactions. Although simulations are experiential in nature a skillful facilitator can lead participant’s new knowledge, insight, an increase in one’s behavioral repertoire and the ability to recognize, identify and overcome such sources of error as the fundamental attribution error (Ross, 1977), ethno-centric and self-serving bias, attributional bias (Salzman, The Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 23, 181–193, 1995), the homogeneity bias (Linville, 1998) and the nature of in-group/out-group dynamics (Talfel, 1979).

Keywords

Intercultural training Intercultural simulations BaFaBafa Attribution training 

References

  1. Albert, R. A. (1983). The intercultural sensitizer or culture assimilator: A cognitive approach. In D. Landis & R. Brislin (Eds.), Handbook of intercultural training (Vol. II, pp. 186–217). New York: Pergamon.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  3. Ansbacher, H., & Ansbacher, R. (1946). The individual psychology of Alfred Adler. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  4. Becker, E. (1971). The birth and death of meaning: An interdisciplinary perspective on the problem of man (2nd ed.). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bhawuk, D. P. S. (1990). Cross-cultural orientation programs. In R. Brislin (Ed.), Applied cross-cultural psychology (pp. 325–346). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brislin, R. W. (1993). Understanding culture’s influence on behavior. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  7. Dela Cruz, K., Salzman, M. B., Brislin, R., & Losch, N. (2006). Hawaiian attributional perspectives on intercultural interactions in higher education: Development of an intercultural sensitizer. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(1), 119–140.Google Scholar
  8. Cushner, K., & Brislin, R. W. (1996). Intercultural interactions: A practical guide (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  9. Eun, D., & Patton, B. (1996). The grocery store. In Program on Negotiation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Law School.Google Scholar
  10. Flanagan, J. C. (1954). The critical incident technique. Psychological Bulletin, 51, 327–358.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Fowler, S. M., & Mumford, M. G. (1995). Intercultural sourcebook: Cross-cultural training methods. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.Google Scholar
  12. Fowler, S. M., & Blohm, J. M. (2004). An analysis of methods of intercultural training. In D. Landis, J. M. Bennett, & M. J. Bennett (Eds.), Handbook of intercultural training (3rd ed., pp. 37–84). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  13. Gochenour, T. (1977). The owl and the albatross. In D. Batchelder & E. G. Warner (Eds.), Beyond experience. Brattleboro VT: Experiment Press.Google Scholar
  14. Greenberg, J., Pyszczynski, T., & Solomon, S. (1982). The self-serving attributional bias: Beyond self-presentation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 18(1), 56–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Greenberg, J., & Rosenfield, D. (1979). Whites’ ethnocentrism and their attributions for the behavior of blacks: A motivational bias. Journal of Personality, 47(4), 643–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Greenberg, J., Solomon, S., & Pyszczynski, T. (1997). Terror management theory of self-esteem and cultural worldviews: Empirical assessments and conceptual refinements. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 29, pp. 61–139). San Diego, CA: Academic.Google Scholar
  17. Gudykunst, W. B., & Hammer, M. R. (1983). Basic training design: Approaches to intercultural training. In D. Landis & R. W. Brislin (Eds.), Handbook of intercultural training: Issues in theory and design (Vol. 1, pp. 118–154). Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  19. Hofstede, G. (2002). Dimensions do not exist: A reply to Brendan McSweeney. Human Relations, 55(11), 1355–1361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hofstede, G. J., & Pedersen, P. (2002). Exploring culture: Exercises, stories and synthetic cultures. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.Google Scholar
  21. Linville, P. W. (1998). The heterogeneity of homogeneity.Google Scholar
  22. Pettigrew, T. F. (1998). Intergroup contact theory. Annual Review of Psychology, 49(1), 65–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Pusch, M. D. (2004). Intercultural training in historical perspective. In D. Landis, J. M. Bennett, & M. J. Bennett (Eds.), Handbook of intercultural training (3rd ed., pp. 13–36). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ross, L. (1977). The intuitive psychologist and his shortcomings: Distortions in the attribution process. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 10, 173–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Salzman, M. (1990). The construction of an intercultural sensitizer for training non-Navajo personnel. The Journal of American Indian Education, 30, 25–33.Google Scholar
  26. Salzman, M. (1995). Attributional discrepancies and biases in cross-cultural interactions. The Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 23, 181–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Salzman, M. B. (2001a). Globalization, culture, and anxiety: Perspectives and predictions from terror management theory. Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless, 10(4), 337–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Salzman, M. (2001b). Cultural trauma and recovery: Perspectives from terror management theory. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 2(2), 172–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Salzman, M. (2012). Dehumanization as a prerequisite of atrocity and killing. In D. J. Christie & J. E. Pim (Eds.), Nonkilling psychology (pp. 107–124). Honolulu, HI: Global Center for Non-Killing.Google Scholar
  30. Saphiere, D. M. H. (1995). Ecotonos: A multicultural problem-solving simulation. In S. M. Fowler & M. G. Mumford (Eds.), Intercultural sourcebook cross-cultural training methods (Vol. 1, pp. 83–91). Boston: Intercultural Press.Google Scholar
  31. Sherif, M., Harvey, O. J., White, B. J., Hood, W. R., & Sherif, C. W. (1954). Experimental study of positive and negative intergroup attitudes between experimentally produced groups. Robber’s Cave Study. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  32. Shirts, R. G. (1971). Review of ‘Games for Growth’ by AK Gordon. Simulation and Games, 2(3), 377–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shirts, G. (1973). BAFA-BAFA: A cross-cultural simulation. Del Mar, CA: Simile II.Google Scholar
  34. Shirts, G. (2013). Starpower. Del Mar, CA: Simile II.Google Scholar
  35. Steinwachs, B. (1995). Barnga: A game for all seasons. In S. M. Fowler & M. G. Mumford (Eds.), Intercultural Sourcebook, (1): Cross-cultural training methods. Boston: Intercultural Press.Google Scholar
  36. Tajfel, H. (1970). Experiments in intergroup discrimination. Scientific American, 223, 96–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tajfel, H. (1979). Individuals and groups in social psychology. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 18(2), 183–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Thiagarajan, S. (1990). Barnga. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.Google Scholar
  39. Triandis, H. (1977). Theoretical framework for evaluation of cross-cultural training effectiveness. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 1, 19–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of Hawai‘i at ManoaHonoluluUSA

Personalised recommendations