Advertisement

Girls at Work in the Middle Ages

  • Sophie Brouquet
Chapter

Abstract

In recent decades, historians have documented the varied forms of work that women undertook in medieval society, either on behalf of their households or independently as single women. Women worked alongside men in family workshops in towns and cities. A key question is: how and when did these women learn their craft? Was it as girls in family workshops? As historians of the Middle Ages have begun to identify adolescence as a definable stage in the transition from girlhood to womanhood, so too have they discerned the contribution of girls to the world of medieval work. Based on written and visual sources, this chapter surveys the evidence for women’s labour with a particular focus on artistic work, such as embroidery, decorative crafts, and painting.

Bibliography

Unpublished Archival Sources

    Lyon Municipal Library

    1. Ovide Moralisé, Ms. 742, fol. 54Google Scholar

    Bibliothèque Nationale de France

    1. MS Français 12420. Giovanni Boccaccio, De Claris Mulieribus, French translation by Laaurent de Premierfait entitled: Livre des femmes nobles et renommeesGoogle Scholar

Printed Sources

  1. De Pizan, Christine, La cité des Dames. Edited by Éric Hicks and Thérèse Moreau (Paris: Stock, 1986)Google Scholar
  2. De Troyes, Chrétien, Yvain ou le Chevalier au lion, in Chrétien de Troyes. Œuvres complètes. Edited by Daniel Porion (Paris: Gallimard, La Pléiade, 1994)Google Scholar
  3. Favresse, Félicien, ‘Les premiers statuts connus des métiers bruxellois du duc et de sa ville et note sur ces métiers’, Bulletin de la commission royale d’Histoire, cxi (1946), 76–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Rotuli parliamentorum; ut et petitiones, et placita in parliamento. Collected and arranged by R. Blyke, P. Morant, T. Astle, and J. Topham. Edited by J. Strachey (6 vols. London: 1767–1777; published 1832)Google Scholar
  5. Thomas, Arthur H. (ed.), Calendar of Plea and Memoranda Rolls Preserved Among the Archives dof the City of London at the Guildhall A. D. 1413–1437(Cambridge University Press, 1943)Google Scholar

Secondary Sources

  1. Bardsley, Sandy, ‘Women’s Work Reconsidered: Gender and Wage Differentiation in Late Medieval England’, Past and Present, 165 (1999), 3–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beghin, Cécile, ‘Donneuses d’ouvrages, apprenties et salariées aux xiv e et xv e siècles dans les sociétés urbaines languedociennes’, Clio Histoire, Femmes et Sociétés, 3 (1996), 31–54Google Scholar
  3. Bennett, Judith M. and Amy M. Froide, ‘A Singular Past’ in Judith Bennett and Amy M. Froide (eds), Singlewomen in the European Past, 1250–1800 (Philadephia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999).Google Scholar
  4. Barron, Caroline, ‘The Golden Age of Women in Medieval London’, Reading Medieval Studies, 15 (1989), 35–58Google Scholar
  5. Dale, M. K., ‘The London Silkwomen in the Fifteenth Century’, Economic History Review, 4 (1933), 324–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Metteis, Maria Consiglia, Idee sulla donna nel Medioevo: fonti e aspetti giuridici, antropologici, religiosi, sociali e letterari della condizione femminile (Bologna: Pàtron, 1981)Google Scholar
  7. De Winter, Patrick, ‘Christine de Pizan, ses enlumineurs et ses rapports avec le milieu bourguignon’ in Actes du 104° Congrès national des Sociétés savantes, Bordeaux, Archéologie et histoire de l’art (Paris: Éditions du CTHS, 1982), 335–376Google Scholar
  8. Dixon, Elizabeth, ‘Craftswomen in the Livre des Métiers’, Economic Journal, 5 (1895), 209–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Duby, Georges and Michelle Perrot, Histoire des femmes en Occident (Paris: Plon, 1991)Google Scholar
  10. Frappier, Jean, Étude sur Yvain ou le chevalier au lion de Chrétien de Troyes (Paris: SEDES, 1969)Google Scholar
  11. Gil, Marc, ‘Les femmes dans les métiers d’art des Pays-Bas bourguignons au XVe siècle’, Clio: Femmes, Genre, Histoire, 34 (2011), 231–254.Google Scholar
  12. Gilliodts-Van Severen, Louis, ‘L’œuvre de Jean Brito, prototypographe brugeois’, Annales de la Société d’émulation pour l’étude de l’histoire et des Antiquités de la Flandre, x (1897)Google Scholar
  13. Gludovatz, Karin and Michaela Krieger, ‘La contesse de Bar, Jean le Noir, enlumineur, et Bourgot, sa fille, enlumineresse de livres: zu Konzeption und Ausführung der Heures de Flandre’, Wallraf-Richartz-Jahrbuch, 64 (2003), 83–124Google Scholar
  14. Goldbert, P. J., Women in England c. 1275–1525 (Manchester University Press, 1995).Google Scholar
  15. Hanawalt, Barbara, Growing Up in Medieval London: The Experience of Childhood in History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993).Google Scholar
  16. Hanawalt, Barbara, ‘Violence in the Domestic Milieu of Late Medieval England’ in Richard W. Kauper (ed.), Violence in Medieval Society (Boydell: Woodbridge, 2000), 197–214.Google Scholar
  17. Herlihy, David, Opera Muliebra, Women and Work in Medieval Europe (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990).Google Scholar
  18. Jonin, Pierre, ‘Aspects de la vie sociale au XIIe siècle dans Yvain’, L’information littéraire, 2 (1964), 47–54.Google Scholar
  19. Lepage, Yvan G., ‘Encore les trois cents pucelles (Chrétien de Troyes, Yvain, v. 5298–5324)’, Cahiers de civilisation médiévale, 134 (1991), 159–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Leyser, Henriett, Medieval Women: A Social History of Women in England, 1450–1500 (London: Phoenix Giant, 1995).Google Scholar
  21. Pereira, Michela, Ne Eva ne Maria (Bologna: Zanichelli, 1981).Google Scholar
  22. Phillips, Kim M., Medieval Maidens. Young Women and Gender in England, 1270–1540 (Manchester University Press, 2003).Google Scholar
  23. Vanwijnsberghe, Domnique, ‘‘‘De fin or et d’azur,’’ Les commanditaires de livres et le métier de l’enluminure à Tournai à la fin du Moyen Âge (XIV e -XV e siècles) (Louvain: Peteers, 2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sophie Brouquet
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of HistoryUniversité Toulouse II le MirailToulouseFrance

Personalised recommendations