The Macula Flava of the Human Vocal Fold as a Stem Cell Microenvironment
There is growing evidence to suggest that the cells in the maculae flavae are tissue stem cells of the human vocal fold and maculae flavae are a candidate for a stem cell niche.
The latest research shows that the cells in the human maculae flavae are involved in the metabolism of extracellular matrices that are essential for the viscoelasticity in the human vocal fold mucosa as a vibrating tissue, and considered to be important cells in the growth, development, and aging of the human vocal fold mucosa.
The cells in the human maculae flavae possess proteins of all three germ layers, indicating they are undifferentiated and have the ability of multipotency.
The cell division in the human adult maculae flavae is reflective of asymmetric self-renewal and cultured cells form a colony-forming unit. Therefore, the phenomenon gives rise to the strong possibility that the cells in the human maculae flavae are tissue stem cells.
Recent research suggests that the cells in the human maculae flavae arise from the differentiation of bone marrow cells via peripheral circulation.
The hyaluronan concentration in the maculae flavae is high and contains cells which possess hyaluronan receptors, indicating that the maculae flavae are hyaluronan-rich matrix, which is required for a stem cell niche.
A proper microenvironment in the maculae flavae of the human vocal fold mucosa is necessary to be effective as a stem cell niche maintaining the stemness of the contained tissue stem cells.
KeywordsMacula flava Tissue stem cells Stem cell niche Vocal fold stellate cells Vocal fold
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