Oral Cancer Stem Cells Microenvironment
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play important role in tumor growth and metastasis coupled with increased recurrences and acquired therapeutic resistance in oral cancer. The tumor microenvironment imposes intense pressure in cancer evolution in response to adverse growth conditions, resource limitation and immune predation. Here, we discussed the dynamic interplay between cancer stem cells and tumor microenvironment in the formation of intratumoral heterogeneity to modulate tumor progression. The CSCs niche provide a special microhabitat for survival, maintenance of stemness and tumor re-propagation. Moreover, adaptive cellular behavior might be driven by tough tumor microenvironmental selective forces which highly regulate alterations in the gene expression leading to the reprogramming of signaling pathways generating stem-like characteristics, adaptive metabolic plasticity and energy fueling with autophagy to permit the CSCs to sustain in the ever changing microenvironments during tumor progression. On the other hand, CSCs also direct the tumor microenvironment modulation and remodeling in its favour. The cytokines, chemokines and growth factors released from CSCs regulates neoangiogensis, differentiation, degradation of matrix protein and immune suppression favoring tumor-promoting conditions and initiates multiple signaling cascades augmenting the tumor progression.
KeywordsOral cancer Tumor heterogeneity Cancer stem cell Tumor microenvironment
Research support was partly provided by Department of Biotechnology [Grant Number: BT/PR7791/BRB/10/1187/2013]; Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Department of Science and Technology [Grant Number: SR/SO/BB-0101/2012]; Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) [Grant Number: 37(1608)/13/EMR-II] Human Resource Development Group, Government of India; Science and Technology Department, Government of Odisha. PPN is obliged to DST SERB, New Delhi, India for providing fellowship.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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