Vegetation and Land Cover

  • Ali Farzaneh
  • Morteza Ebrahimi Rastaghi
Part of the World Soils Book Series book series (WSBS)


Four main factors, namely climatic situation, phytogeographical regions, varied topography , and the impact of human activity are considered responsible for the changes in distribution and character of the natural vegetation. The extensive Iranian plateau displays quite a variation in such a way that 167 families of vascular plants and 1215 genera, some of which include only one species and some (e.g. Astragalus) include about 800 species. The first and very small-scale map depicting major types of vegetation in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan has been available since 1960s. In 2005, Forest, Range and Watershed Organization (FRWO) published the first land cover map using remote sensing and GIS techniques. This map shows the divisions and subdivisions of the vegetation cover according to location, quantity, and quality of the natural vegetation cover. In this chapter, we summarize the multipurpose functions of the vegetation cover in the country according to their status in different regions.


Land cover map Iran's floristic Landsat -5 TM GIS environment 


  1. Department of Environment, Islamic Republic of Iran (2010) Fourth national report to the convention on biological diversity, Oct 2010Google Scholar
  2. Di Gregorio A (2000) Land covers classification system (LCCS) classification and user manual, FAO RomeGoogle Scholar
  3. Fisher WB (1968) The Cambridge History of Iran. Vol. 1 The land of Iran. Cambridge at the University PressGoogle Scholar
  4. FRWO—Forest, Range and Watershed Organization (2005) Report of land cover map of Iran. Engineering Bureau, Tehran, IranGoogle Scholar
  5. Ghahreman A, Attar F (2000) Biodiversity of plant species in Iran, Vol. 1. University of Tehran, IranGoogle Scholar
  6. Javanshir K (1975) Iran’s wooden vegetation atlas. Protection of natural resources societyGoogle Scholar
  7. Jenny H (1941) Factor of soil formation a system of quantitative pedology. Dover Publication, INC, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Mobayen M, Tregubov (1980) Iran’s vegetation map 1:2,500,000 Tehran University, IranGoogle Scholar
  9. Mozafarian V (2004) Kimaye sabz. FRWO’s Publication, Tehran, IranGoogle Scholar
  10. Sabeti H (1969) Les Etudes Bioclimatique de l’Iran University of Tehran publication No. 1231Google Scholar
  11. Zohari M (1963) Iran’s geographic vegetation. Iran environment protection organization Tehran. IranGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Forest, Range and Watershed Organization (FRWO)TehranIran

Personalised recommendations