Human-Induced Land Degradation

  • Abbas Farshad
  • Ebrahim Pazira
  • Ali Akbar Noroozi
Part of the World Soils Book Series book series (WSBS)


This chapter begins with generalities, including definitions and data availability. After a glance at environmental conditions, including physiography, climate, soils and water supply, this chapter continues with agricultural systems and their constituting features, followed then by an account of how the systems have been affecting soil quality. While a number of human-induced degradations, including erosion, salinization, compaction, flooding and ponding, and aridification, are discussed, the GLSOD maps (scales of 1:1000,000 and 1:5000,000) and the maps of landslide, erosion features and intensity (PSIAC-based) of Iran are presented, including a brief description of the mapping methodology. This chapter is concluded by short discussions about some of the strategies, such as land reform, dam construction, control on land use conversion, afforestation, and choosing suitable irrigation method, that were and still will have to be followed to mitigate the degradation. Iran, being an oil producing country, chose for a dualistic development policy including agricultural and industrial sectors. In order to mitigate degradation, equilibrium between the socio-economic and the physical environment is inevitably reachable through a thorough planning. Such a planning can never be copied from elsewhere, or planned based on dreams, but must be fully adapted to the local social systems.


Causes of degradation GLASOD map of Iran Mitigation strategies 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abbas Farshad
    • 1
  • Ebrahim Pazira
    • 2
  • Ali Akbar Noroozi
    • 3
  1. 1.Earth System Analysis Department (ESA) of ITCTwente UniversityEnschedeThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department Land and Water Resources Engineering and Head of Soil ScienceIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute (SCWMRI)TehranIran

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