Risk Factors and Biomarkers of RA-ILD

Part of the Respiratory Medicine book series (RM)


Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is one of the most common clinical manifestations of lung involvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is often progressive and leads to substantial morbidity and mortality, highlighting the need for improved recognition of disease, including identification of targets for disease prevention and clinical tools that classify early stages of disease. Recent research has identified risk factors for both early-stage and clinically evident RA-ILD, including those significantly associated with disease progression and mortality. Furthermore, recent advances in experimental protein biomarkers of RA-ILD and their incorporation into clinical predictive models may lead to earlier identification of disease and provide opportunities for timely interventions to prevent disease progression. Although the research exploring molecular and genetic markers of RA-ILD is limited, the overlap of RA-ILD with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other connective tissue disease-ILD, such as systemic sclerosis, enables extrapolation from ongoing research in these areas, thus highlighting other potential targets for discovery and opportunities for a personalized approach to RA-ILD risk assessment and management.


Interstitial lung disease Biomarkers Risk factors Genetic markers Subclinical disease 


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pulmonary and Critical Care MedicineBrigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Department of MedicineBrigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA

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