Medical Family Therapy in Alcohol and Drug Treatment

Chapter
Part of the Focused Issues in Family Therapy book series (FIFT)

Abstract

The prevalence rates of licit and illicit substances in the United States of America (USA) suggest that medical family therapists (MedFTs) and other behavioral health providers will undoubtedly encounter individuals or families struggling with substance use. In any given year, around half of Americans use alcohol, a quarter are binge alcohol users (i.e., five or more drinks on a single occasion), and about 6.5% are heavy alcohol users (i.e., those who binge 5 or more days in a 30-day period) (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration 2014). For illicit drugs, around 9.4% of Americans are current users, the majority of which are using marijuana (SAMHSA, 2014). A MedFT involved in an integrated behavioral healthcare (IBHC) team to treat alcohol, and drug issues will need to be aware of the complex physiological and social effects that substances can have, as well as the interplay of these factors on the disorder. In some cases, patients may see the use as benign and underreport it, and it may have unexpected effects on the patient or family system that are not immediately recognizable. Other patients may present for treatment for a different problem while at the same time having an undiagnosed or untreated substance use problem. MedFTs are crucial members of treatment teams who can attend to these intricacies.

Notes

Glossary of Important Terms in Alcohol and Drug Treatment

Chemical dependency

The physical and/or psychological dependence on one or more psychoactive drug.

Pharmacotherapy

The practice of using drug action in the body to address/treat behavioral health issues; or, the field of medicine that addresses the use of medications to help treat or correct mental health illness and drug addiction.

Physical dependence

The repeated use of licit or illicit substances can lead to a physiological reliance on the substance, which may include tolerance and withdrawal symptoms.

Polydrug abuse

The use of several drugs either in succession or at the same time to achieve a certain effect.

Psychoactive substance

Any substance that directly alters normal functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) when it is taken by means of injection, ingestion, inhalation, snorting, or absorbed by blood.

Psychological dependence

A state of consciousness caused by substance use that will reinforce the dependence on substance use.

Psychotropic drugs

Drugs used to treat behavioral health illnesses, including, but not limited to, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anxiolytics.

Substance abuse

The harmful or dangerous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and other licit or illicit chemical substances (e.g., prescription medication, marijuana, cocaine), that creates significant distress in the individual’s life.

Tolerance

The need for an increased amount of alcohol or drugs of abuse to experience an effect from use (this occurs after repeated use)—or the body’s ability to consume greater amounts of a substance with the same physiological or psychological impact.

Withdrawal

The abnormal physical or psychological response to the discontinuation of use of a licit or illicit substance that has the capability to produce physical dependence. Common withdrawal symptoms may include sweating, fever , vomiting, anxiety, insomnia, and muscle pain—or the body’s attempt to reach homeostasis after a history of psychoactive drug use/abuse. Symptoms experienced by the individual will depend on several factors related to substance of abuse, frequency, and severity of use.

References1

  1. Akhavain, P., Amaral, D., Murphy, M., & Cardon Uehlinger, K. (1999). Collaborative practice: A nursing perspective of the psychiatric interdisciplinary treatment team. Holistic Nursing Practice, 13, 1–11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10196897
  2. Al-Anon Family Groups. (2011–2017). Al-Anon family groups: Strength and hope for friends and families of problem drinkers. Retrieved from http://www.al-anon.alateen.org/
  3. Alcoholics Anonymous. (2017). What is A.A.? New York, NY: Alcoholics Anonymous World Services. Retrieved from http://www.aa.org/pages/en_US/what-is-aa
  4. Alcoholics Anonymous. (2014). A brief history of the Big Book. New York, NY: Alcoholics Anonymous World Services.Google Scholar
  5. *Alexander, B. K. (1987). The disease and adaptive models of addiction: A framework evaluation. Journal of Drug Issues, 17, 47–66.  https://doi.org/10.1177/002204268701700104.
  6. Alexander, J., & Parsons, B. V. (1982). Functional family therapy. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. *American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  8. American Society of Addiction Medicine. (2011). The definition of addiction. Retrieved from http://www.asam.org/docs/default-source/public-policy-statements/1definition_of_addiction_long_4-11.pdf?sfvrsn=4
  9. Austin, A. M., MacGowan, M. J., & Wagner, E. F. (2005). Effective family-based interventions for adolescents with substance use problems: A systemic review. Research on Social Work Practice, 15, 67–83.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731504271606 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barrowclough, C., Haddock, G., Beardmore, R., Conrod, P., Craig, T., Davies, L., … Wykes, T. (2009). Evaluating integrated MI and CBT for people with psychosis and substance misuse: Recruitment, retention and sample characteristics of the MIDAS trial. Addictive Behaviors, 34, 859–866.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.03.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Barton, C., Alexander, J., Waldron, H., Turner, C., & Warburton, J. (1985). Generalizing treatment effects of Functional Family Therapy: Three replications. American Journal of Family Therapy, 13, 16–26.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01926188508251260 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barnes, G., & Farrell, M. (1992). Parental support and control as predictors of adolescent drinking, delinquency, and related problem behaviors. Journal of Marriage and Family, 54, 763–776. http://www.jstor.org/stable/353159
  13. Beck, A. (1979). Cognitive therapy and emotional disorders. Madison, CT: Penguin Group.Google Scholar
  14. Becker, S., & Curry, J. (2008). Outpatient interventions for adolescent substance abuse: A quality of evidence review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 531–543.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.76.4.531 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Berg, I. K., & Miller, S. D. (1992). Working with the problem drinker: A solution-focused approach. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  16. Betty Ford Institute Consensus Panel. (2007). What is recovery? A working definition from the Betty Ford Institute. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 33, 221–228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2007.06.001
  17. Callon, C., Wood, E., Marsh, D., Li, K., Montaner, J., & Kerr, T. (2006). Barriers and facilitators to methadone maintenance therapy use among illicit opiate injection drug users in Vancouver. Journal of Opioid Management, 2, 35–41. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/David_Marsh3/publication/6487367_Barriers_and_facilitators_to_methadone_maintenance_therapy_use_among_illicit_opiate_injection_drug_users_in_Vancouver/links/56786f9008aebcdda0ebd8bf.pdf
  18. Carlson, B. E., Smith, C., Matto, H., & Eversman, M. (2008). Reunification with children in the context of maternal recovery from drug abuse. Families in Society, 89, 253–263.  https://doi.org/10.1606/1044-3894.3741 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Castro, F., & Alarcón, E. (2002). Integrating cultural variables into drug abuse prevention and treatment with racial/ethnic minorities. Journal of Drug Issues, 32, 783–810. https://doi.org/10.1177/002204260203200304
  20. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (1999). Brief cognitive-behavioral therapy. In Brief interventions and brief therapies for substance abuse (pp. 51–77). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Google Scholar
  21. Cosden, M., Ellens, J. E., Schnell, J. L., Yamini-Diouf, Y., & Wolfe, M. M. (2003). Evaluation of a mental health treatment court with assertive community treatment. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 21, 415–427.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bsl.542 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dakof, G., Cohern, J., Henderson, C., Duarte, E., Boustani, M., Blackburn, A., Venzer, E., & Hawes, S. (2010). A randomized pilot study of the Engaging Moms Program for family drug court. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 38, 263–274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2010.01.002
  23. de Shazer, S., & Isebaert, L. (2003). The Bruges model: A solution-focused approach to problem drinking. Journal of Family Psychotherapy, 14, 43–52.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J085v14n04_04
  24. Drake, R., Mueserk K., Brunette, M., McHugo, G., (2004). A review of treatments for people with severe mental illnesses and co-occurring substance use disorders. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 27, 360–374. http://dx.doi.org/10.2975/27.2004.360.374
  25. Drummond, C., Kouimtsidis, C., Reynolds, M., Russell, I., Godfrey, C., McCusker, M., … Porter, S. (2005). The effectiveness and cost effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy for opiate misusers in methadone maintenance treatment: A multicentre, randomised, controlled trial. Drugs: Education, Prevention & Policy, 12, 69–76. Retrieved from https://kar.kent.ac.uk/id/eprint/16974 Google Scholar
  26. Engel, G. L. (1977). The need for a new medical model: A challenge for biomedicine. Science, 196, 129–136.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.847460 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Engel, G. L. (1980). The clinical application of the biopsychosocial model. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 535–544.  https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.137.5.535 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Enoch, M. (2013). Genetic influences on the development of alcoholism. Current Psychiatry Reports, 15, 412–421. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-013-0412-1
  29. Fals-Stewart, W., Lam, W., & Kelley, M. (2009). Learning sobriety together: Behavioral couples therapy for alcoholism and drug abuse. Journal of Family Therapy, 31, 115–125.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467.2009.00458.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Families Anonymous. (2017). Families Anonymous recovery fellowship. Des Plaines, IL: Families Anonymous. Retrieved from http://www.familiesanonymous.org/ Google Scholar
  31. Finkelstein, N. (1994). Treatment issues for alcohol- and drug- dependent pregnant and parenting women. Health & Social Work, 19, 7–15. https://doi.org/10.1093/hsw/19.1.7
  32. *Fischer, M. S., Baucom, D. H., & Cohen, M. J. (2016). Cognitive-behavioral couple therapies: Review of the evidence for the treatment of relationship distress, psychopathology, and chronic health conditions. Family Process, 55, 423–442.  https://doi.org/10.1111/famp.12227.
  33. Fischner, J. L., Spann, L., & Crawford, D. (1991). Measuring codependency. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 8, 87–100.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J020V08N01_06 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Glasner-Edwards, S., Tate, S. R., McQuaid, J. R., Cummins, K., Granholm, E., & Brown, S. A. (2007). Mechanisms of action in integrated cognitive-behavioral treatment versus twelve-step facilitation for substance-dependent adults with comorbid major depression. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 68, 663–672.  10.15288/jsad.2007.68.663 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Goldstein, R., & Volkow, N. (2011). Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex in addiction: Neuroimaging findings and clinical implications. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 12, 652–669. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3462342/
  36. Griffiths, M. (2005). A ‘components’ model of addiction within a biopsychosocial framework. Journal of Substance Use, 10, 191–197.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14659890500114359 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gruber, K. J., & Taylor, M. F. (2006). A family perspective for substance abuse: Implications from the literature. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 6, 1–29.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J160v06n01_01 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hasin, D., & Kilcoyne, B. (2012). Comorbidity of psychiatric and substance use disorders in the United States: Current issues and findings from the NESARC. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 25, 165–171.  https://doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0b013e3283523dcc CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Hearn, W. L., Rose, S., Ciarleglio, A., & Mash, D. C. (1991). Cocaethylene is more potent than cocaine in mediating lethality. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 39, 532–533.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0091-3057(91)90222-N CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Heather, N., Luce, A., Peck, D., Dunbar, B., & James, I. (1999). Development of a treatment version of the Readiness to Change Questionnaire. Addiction Research, 7, 63–83.  https://doi.org/10.3109/16066359909004375 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hettema, J., Miller, W., & Steele, J. (2004). A meta-analysis of motivational interviewing techniques in the treatment of alcohol use disorders. Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Research, 28, 74A–74A (supplement).Google Scholar
  42. Hodgson, J., Lamson, A., Mendenhall, T., & Tyndall, L. (2014). Introduction to medical family therapy: Advanced applications. In J. Hodgson, A. Lamson, T. Mendenhall, and D. Crane (Eds.), Medical family therapy: Advanced applications (pp. 1–9). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  43. Ilgen, M., Wilbourne, P., Moos, B., & Moos, R. (2008). Problem-free drinking over 16 years among individuals with alcohol use disorders. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 92, 116–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.07.006
  44. *Inaba, D. S., & Cohen, W. E. (2014). Uppers, downers, all arounders: Physical and mental effects of psychoactive drugs (8th ed.). Medford, OR: CNS Publications.Google Scholar
  45. Islam, S. K. N., Hossain, K. J., Ahmed, A., & Ahsan, M. (2002). Nutritional status of drug addicts undergoing detoxification: Prevalence of malnutrition and influence of illicit drugs and lifestyle. British Journal of Nutrition, 88, 507–513.  https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN2002702 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. *Juhnke, G. A., & Hagedorn, W. B. (2013). Counseling addicted families: An integrated assessment and treatment model. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Kerr, D., Capaldi, D., Pears, K., & Owen, L. (2012). Intergenerational influences on early alcohol use: Independence from the problem behavior pathway. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 889–906. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579412000430
  48. Kidorf, M., King, V. L., Gandotra, N., Kolodner, K., & Brooner, R. K. (2012). Improving treatment enrollment and re-enrollment rates of syringe exchangers: 12-month outcomes. Drug Alcohol Dependence, 124, 162–166.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.12.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Landry, M. J. (1996). Overview of addiction treatment effectiveness. HHSPub. No. (SMA) 96–3081. Rockville, MD: Diane Publishing.Google Scholar
  50. Li, D., Zhao, H., & Gelernter, J. (2011). Strong association of the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) with alcohol dependence and alcohol-induced medical diseases. Biological Psychiatry, 70, 504–512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.02.024
  51. Liddle, H. A. (2002). Multidimensional family therapy for adolescent cannabis users, cannabis youth treatment (CYT) series (Vol. 5). Rockville, MD: Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT). Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED478685.pdfhttp://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED478685.pdf
  52. Liddle, H., & Dakof, G. (1995). Efficacy of family therapy for drug abuse: Promising but not definitive. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 21, 511–544.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1995.tb00177.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Liddle, H., Dakof, G. A., Henderson, C. E., & Rowe, C. L. (2011). Implementation outcomes of mutli-dimensional family therapy-detention to community (DTC): A reintegration program for drug-using juvenile detainees. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 55, 587–604.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X10366960 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. *Lieber, C. S. (2012). Medical and nutritional complications of alcoholism: Mechanisms and management. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  55. Lieber, C. S. (2003). Relationships between nutrition, alcohol use, and liver disease. Alcohol Research & Health, 27(3), 220–231. Retrieved from https://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh27-3/220-231.htm?ref=vidupdatez.com/image Google Scholar
  56. Magill, M., & Ray, L. A. (2009). Cognitive-behavioral treatment with adult alcohol and illicit drug users: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 70, 516–527.  10.15288/jsad.2009.70.516 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Marijuana and the Law. (2016). Marijuana and the law. Retrieved from http://www.marijuanaandthelaw.com/
  58. Marlatt, G. A., & Witkiewitz, K. (2002). Harm reduction approaches to alcohol use: Health promotion, prevention, and treatment. Addictive Behaviors, 27, 867–886.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4603(02)00294-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Marlowe, D. (2003). Integrating substance abuse treatment and criminal justice supervision. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 2, 4–14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2851043/?report=reader
  60. Mathers, B. M., Degenhardt, L., Phillips, B., Wiessing, L., Hickman, M., Strathdee, S. A., … Mattick, R. P. (2008). Global epidemiology of injecting drug use and HIV among people who inject drugs: A systematic review. The Lancet, 372, 1733–1745.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61311-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Maude-Griffin, P. M., Hohenstein, J. M., Humfleet, G. L., Reilly, P. M., Tusel, D. J., & Hall, S. M. (1998). Superior efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for urban crack cocaine abusers: Main and matching effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 832–837.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.66.5.832 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. McCance, E. F., Price, L. H., Kosten, T. R., & Jatlow, P. I. (1995). Cocaethylene: Pharmacology, physiology and behavioral effects in humans. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 274, 215–223. Retrieved from http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/jpet/274/1/215.full.pdf PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. McCrady, B. S., Wilson, A. D., Muñoz, R. E., Fink, B. C., Fokas, K., & Borders, A. (2016). Alcohol-focused behavioral couple therapy. Family Process, 55, 443–459.  https://doi.org/10.1111/famp.12231 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. *Mee-Lee, D. (Ed.) (2013). The ASAM criteria: Treatment criteria for addictive, substance-related and co-occurring conditions (3rd ed.). North Bethesda, MD: American Society of Addiction Medicine.Google Scholar
  65. Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2002). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change, vol. 2. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  66. *Miller, W. R. & Clunies, S. (Eds.) (2000). Enhancing motivation for change in substance abuse treatment. Rockville, MD: Diane Publishing.Google Scholar
  67. Miller, W. R., Westerberg, V. S., & Waldron, H. B. (1995). Evaluating alcohol problems in adults and adolescents. In R. Hester and R. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of alcoholism treatment approaches: Effective alternatives (2nd ed., pp. 61–88). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  68. Mirijello, A., D’Angelo, C., Ferrulli, A., Vassallo, G., Antonelli, M., Caputo, F., … Addolorato, G. (2015). Identification and management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Drugs, 75, 353–365.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40265-015-0358-1 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Morgenstern, J., Blanchard, K. A., Morgan, T. J., Labouvie, E., & Hayaki, J. (2001). Testing the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment for substance abuse in a community setting: Within treatment and posttreatment findings. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 1007–1017.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.69.6.1007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Myrick, H., & Anton, R. F. (1998). Treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Alcohol Research and Health, 22, 38–43. Retrieved from http://login.ezproxy.lib.umn.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/222384220?accountid=14586
  71. Narcotics Anonymous. (2017). Narcotics Anonymous world services. Van Nuys, CA: NA World Services. Retrieved from https://na.org/ Google Scholar
  72. *National Association for Addiction Professionals. (2009). The basics of addiction counseling: Desk reference and study guide. Module 1: The pharmacology of psychoactive substance use, abuse and dependence (10th ed.). Alexandria, VA: NAADAC.Google Scholar
  73. *National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2012). Principles of drug addiction treatment: A research based guide. Retrieved from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-drug-addiction-treatment
  74. Nock, M. K., & Photos, V. (2006). Parent motivation to participate in treatment: Assessment and prediction of subsequent participation. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15, 333–346.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-006-9022-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Noël, X., Brevers, D., & Bechara, A. (2013). A neurocognitive approach to understanding the neurobiology of addiction. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 23, 632–638.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2013.01.018 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Hilt, L. (2006). Possible contributors to the gender differences in alcohol use and problems. Journal of General Psychology, 133, 357–374. https://doi.org/10.3200/GENP.133.4.357-374
  77. *O’Farell, T. J., & Fals-Stewart, W. (2006). Behavioral couples therapy for alcoholism and drug abuse. New York, NY: Gilford Press.Google Scholar
  78. Overeaters Anonymous. (2017). Overeaters anonymous: You are not alone anymore! Rio Rancho, NM: Overeaters Anonymous. Retrieved from https://oa.org/
  79. RachBeisel, J., Scott, J., & Dixon, L. (1999). Co-occurring severe mental illness and substance use disorders: A review of recent research. Psychiatric Services, 50, 1427–1434.  https://doi.org/10.1176/ps.50.11.1427 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Rational Recovery (2017). Rational recovery: How to quit your addiction right now—for life. Rational Recovery Systems, Inc. Retrieved from https://rational.org/index.php?id=94
  81. *Rowe, C. L. (2012). Family therapy for drug abuse: Review and updates 2003–2010. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 38, 59–81.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.2011.00280.x.
  82. Rowe, C. L., & Liddle, H. A. (2003). Substance abuse. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 29, 97–120.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.2002.tb00386.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Salyers, M. P., & Tsemberis, S. (2007). ACT and recovery: Integrating evidence-based practice and recovery orientation on assertive community treatment teams. Community Mental Health Journal, 43, 619–641.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-007-9088-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. SAMHSA’s National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices. (2017). Intervention summary: Twelve step facilitation therapy. Retrieved from http://legacy.nreppadmin.net/ViewIntervention.aspx?id=358
  85. Secular Organizations for Sobriety. (2016). SOS: Together we can recover. Los Angeles, CA. Retrieved from http://www.sossobriety.org/what-we-do
  86. Selbekk, A. S., Sagvaag, H., & Fauske, H. (2015). Addiction, families and treatment: A critical realist search for theories that can improve practice. Addiction Research & Theory, 23, 196–204.  https://doi.org/10.3109/16066359.2014.954555 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Shaffer, H. J., LaPlante, D. A., LaBrie, R. A., Kidman, R. C., Donato, A. N., & Stanton, M. V. (2004). Toward a syndrome model of addiction: Multiple expressions, common etiology. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 12, 367–374.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1067322090905705 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Slesnick, N., & Prestopnik, J. L. (2004). Office versus home-based family therapy for runaway, alcohol abusing adolescents: Examination of factors associated with treatment attendance. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 22, 3–19.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J020v22n02_02 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. SMART Recovery. (1994–2017). SMART Recovery: Self-management and recovery training. Retrieved from http://www.smartrecovery.org/intro/
  90. Stanton, M. D., & Shadish, W. R. (1997). Outcome, attrition, and family-couples treatment for drug abuse: A meta-analysis and review of the controlled, comparative studies. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 170–191.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.122.2.170 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2014). Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of national findings, NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14–4863. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUHresultsPDFWHTML2013/Web/NSDUHresults2013.pdf Google Scholar
  92. Szapocznik, J., & Kurtines, W. M. (1989). Breakthroughs in family therapy with drug-abusing and problem youth. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  93. Vanderplasschen, W., Rapp, R. C., Wolf, J. R., & Broekaert, E. (2004). The development and implementation of case management for substance use disorders in North America and Europe. Psychiatric Services, 55, 913–922.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.55.8.913 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Vaughn, M. G., & Howard, M. O. (2004). Adolescent substance abuse treatment: A synthesis of controlled evaluations. Research on Social Work Practice, 14, 325–335.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731504265834 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Walitzer, K. S., Dermen, K. H., & Barrick, C. (2009). Facilitating involvement in Alcoholics Anonymous during out-patient treatment: A randomized clinical trial. Addiction, 104, 391–401.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02467.x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Wells, K., Klap, R., Koike, A., & Sherbourne, C. (2001). Ethnic disparities in unmet need for alcoholism, drug abuse, and mental health care. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 2027–2032. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.158.12.2027
  97. Women for Sobriety. (2016). Women for sobriety. Quakertown, PA: Women For Sobriety. Retrieved from http://womenforsobriety.org/beta2/ Google Scholar
  98. Wright, L., Watson, W., & Bell, J. (1996). Beliefs: The heart of healing in families and illness. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  99. Zucker, R. A., & Gomberg, E. S. (1986). Etiology of alcoholism reconsidered: The case for a biopsychosocial process. American Psychologist, 41, 783–793. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.41.7.783

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Community, Family, and Addiction SciencesTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA

Personalised recommendations