Skin Diseases Associated with HIV Disease

  • Barry Ladizinski
  • Marigdalia Ramirez-Fort
  • Megan Shelton
  • Aisha Sethi


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can present with a variety of cutaneous conditions. Inflammatory conditions associated with HIV infection range from the acute morbilliform eruption of seroconversion to an increase incidence of common conditions including seborrheic dermatitis, eczema, and psoriasis. Immunodeficiency-associated infections can be the presenting symptom of an underlying HIV infection, and these include an increase in common and opportunistic bacterial, fungal, and viral infections. Lastly, whereas great advancement in antiretroviral therapy has led to a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection, these agents have significant adverse cutaneous effects.


Human immunodeficiency virus Seborrheic dermatitis Psoriasis Opportunistic infection Hyperpigmentation 


  1. 1.
    Daar ES, Pilcher CD, Hecht FM. Clinical presentation and diagnosis of primary HIV-1 infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2008;3(1):10–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kahn JO, Walker BD. Acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. N Engl J Med. 1998;339(1):33–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lapins J, Gaines H, Lindback S, Lidbrink P, Emtestam L. Skin and mucosal characteristics of symptomatic primary HIV-1 infection. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 1997;11(2):67–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hulsebosch HJ, Claessen FA, van Ginkel CJ, Kuiters GR, Goudsmit J, Lange JM. Human immunodeficiency virus exanthem. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;23(3 Pt 1):483–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Balslev E, Thomsen HK, Weismann K. Histopathology of acute human immunodeficiency virus exanthema. J Clin Pathol. 1990;43(3):201–2.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cedeno-Laurent F, Gomez-Flores M, Mendez N, Ancer-Rodriguez J, Bryant JL, Gaspari AA, et al. New insights into HIV-1-primary skin disorders. J Int AIDS Soc. 2011;14:5.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Garman ME, Tyring SK. The cutaneous manifestations of HIV infection. Dermatol Clin. 2002;20(2):193–208.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rigopoulos D, Paparizos V, Katsambas A. Cutaneous markers of HIV infection. Clin Dermatol. 2004;22(6):487–98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Froschl M, Land HG, Landthaler M. Seborrheic dermatitis and atopic eczema in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Semin Dermatol. 1990;9(3):230–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mathes BM, Douglass MC. Seborrheic dermatitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1985;13(6):947–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goodman DS, Teplitz ED, Wishner A, Klein RS, Burk PG, Hershenbaum E. Prevalence of cutaneous disease in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987;17(2 Pt 1):210–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gelfand JM, Rudikoff D. Evaluation and treatment of itching in HIV-infected patients. Mount Sinai J Med N Y. 2001;68(4–5):298–308.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Buchness MR. Treatment of skin diseases in HIV-infected patients. Dermatol Clin. 1995;13(1):231–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Johnson TM, Duvic M, Rapini RP, Rios A. AIDS exacerbates psoriasis. N Engl J Med. 1985;313(22):1415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Namazi MR. Paradoxical exacerbation of psoriasis in AIDS: proposed explanations including the potential roles of substance P and gram-negative bacteria. Autoimmunity. 2004;37(1):67–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Morar N, Dlova N, Gupta AK, Naidoo DK, Aboobaker J, Ramdial PK. Erythroderma: a comparison between HIV positive and negative patients. Int J Dermatol. 1999;38(12):895–900.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Morar N, Willis-Owen SA, Maurer T, Bunker CB. HIV-associated psoriasis: pathogenesis, clinical features, and management. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010;10(7):470–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Obuch ML, Maurer TA, Becker B, Berger TG. Psoriasis and human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;27(5 Pt 1):667–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Colton AS, Schachner L, Kowalczyk AP. Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986;14(3):469–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McCalmont TH, Altemus D, Maurer T, Berger TG. Eosinophilic folliculitis. The histologic spectrum. Am J Dermatopathol. 1995;17(5):439–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Costner M, Cockerell CJ. The changing spectrum of the cutaneous manifestations of HIV disease. Arch Dermatol. 1998;134(10):1290–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Luther J, Glesby MJ. Dermatologic adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy: recognition and management. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2007;8(4):221–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bristol-Myers Squibb Company. Sustiva® prescribing information [package insert]. Princeton, NJ: Bristol-Myers Squibb Company; 2007.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Viramune® prescribing information [package insert]. Ridgefield, CT: Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2007.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pharmacia and Upjohn Company. Rescriptor® prescribing information [package insert]. Kalamazoo, MI: Pharmacia and Upjohn Company; 2006.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    van Leth F, Andrews S, Grinsztejn B, Wilkins E, Lazanas MK, Lange JM, et al. The effect of baseline CD4 cell count and HIV-1 viral load on the efficacy and safety of nevirapine or efavirenz-based first-line HAART. AIDS. 2005;19(5):463–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bersoff-Matcha SJ, Miller WC, Aberg JA, van Der Horst C, Hamrick HJ Jr, Powderly WG, et al. Sex differences in nevirapine rash. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32(1):124–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    de Maat MM, ter Heine R, Mulder JW, Meenhorst PL, Mairuhu AT, van Gorp EC, et al. Incidence and risk factors for nevirapine-associated rash. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;59(5–6):457–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fagot JP, Mockenhaupt M, Bouwes-Bavinck JN, Naldi L, Viboud C, Roujeau JC, et al. Nevirapine and the risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis. AIDS. 2001;15(14):1843–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hawkins T. Appearance-related side effects of HIV-1 treatment. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2006;20(1):6–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Warren KJ, Boxwell DE, Kim NY, Drolet BA. Nevirapine-associated Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Lancet. 1998;351(9102):567.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rathbun RC, Lockhart SM, Stephens JR. Current HIV treatment guidelines—an overview. Curr Pharm Des. 2006;12(9):1045–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Merck and Co., Inc. Crixivan® prescribing information [package insert]. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc.; 2006.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Garcia-Silva J, Almagro M, Pena-Penabad C, Fonseca E. Indinavir-induced retinoid-like effects: incidence, clinical features and management. Drug Saf. 2002;25(14):993–1003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ginarte M, Losada E, Prieto A, Lorenzo-Zuniga V, Toribio J. Generalized hair loss induced by indinavir plus ritonavir therapy. AIDS. 2002;16(12):1695–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bouscarat F, Bouchard C, Bouhour D. Paronychia and pyogenic granuloma of the great toes in patients treated with indinavir. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(24):1776–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    GlaxoSmithKline. Agerenase® prescribing information [package insert]. Research Triangle Park, NC: GlaxoSmithKline; 2005.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    GlaxoSmithKline. Lexiva® prescribing information [package insert]. Research Triangle Park, NC: GlaxoSmithKline; 2007.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kohli-Pamnani A, Huynh P, Lobo F. Amprenavir-induced maculopapular exanthem followed by desensitization in a patient with late-stage human immunodeficiency virus. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006;96(4):620–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    JOLLC and Tibotec Therapeutics. Prezista® prescribing information [package insert]. Gurabo: JOLLC and Tibotec Therapeutics; 2006.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bristol-Myers Squibb Company. Reyataz® prescribing information [package insert]. Princeton (NJ): Bristol-Myers Squibb Company; 2007.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Aptivus® prescribing information [package insert]. Ridgefield, CT: Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2006.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Stekler J, Maenza J, Stevens C, Holte S, Malhotra U, McElrath MJ, et al. Abacavir hypersensitivity reaction in primary HIV infection. AIDS. 2006;20(9):1269–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hervey PS, Perry CM. Abacavir: a review of its clinical potential in patients with HIV infection. Drugs. 2000;60(2):447–79.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mallal S, Nolan D, Witt C, Masel G, Martin AM, Moore C, et al. Association between presence of HLA-B*5701, HLA-DR7, and HLA-DQ3 and hypersensitivity to HIV-1 reverse-transcriptase inhibitor abacavir. Lancet. 2002;359(9308):727–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kong HH, Myers SA. Cutaneous effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients. Dermatol Ther. 2005;18(1):58–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Jamjian MC, McNicholl IR. Enfuvirtide: first fusion inhibitor for treatment of HIV infection. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2004;61(12):1242–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gottlieb M, Thommes JA, Team WS. Short communication safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of enfuvirtide administered by a needle-free injection system compared with subcutaneous injection. Antivir Ther. 2008;13(5):723–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Roche Pharmaceuticals. Fuzeon® prescribing information [package insert]. Nutley, NJ: Roche Pharmaceuticals; 2007.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Maurer TA. Dermatologic manifestations of HIV infection. Top HIV Med. 2005;13(5):149–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Shet A, Mathema B, Mediavilla JR, Kishii K, Mehandru S, Jeane-Pierre P, et al. Colonization and subsequent skin and soft tissue infection due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a cohort of otherwise healthy adults infected with HIV type 1. J Infect Dis. 2009;200(1):88–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shadyab AH, Crum-Cianflone NF. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections among HIV-infected persons in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: a review of the literature. HIV Med. 2012;13(6):319–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Crum-Cianflone N, Weekes J, Bavaro M. Recurrent community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections among HIV-infected persons: incidence and risk factors. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2009;23(7):499–502.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Buchacz K, Patel P, Taylor M, Kerndt PR, Byers RH, Holmberg SD, et al. Syphilis increases HIV viral load and decreases CD4 cell counts in HIV-infected patients with new syphilis infections. AIDS. 2004;18(15):2075–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Chesson HW, Pinkerton SD, Voigt R, Counts GW. HIV infections and associated costs attributable to syphilis coinfection among African Americans. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(6):943–8.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Reynolds SJ, Risbud AR, Shepherd ME, Rompalo AM, Ghate MV, Godbole SV, et al. High rates of syphilis among STI patients are contributing to the spread of HIV-1 in India. Sex Transm Infect. 2006;82(2):121–6.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Zetola NM, Klausner JD. Syphilis and HIV infection: an update. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(9):1222–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rompalo AM, Lawlor J, Seaman P, Quinn TC, Zenilman JM, Hook EW 3rd. Modification of syphilitic genital ulcer manifestations by coexistent HIV infection. Sex Transm Dis. 2001;28(8):448–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Schofer H, Imhof M, Thoma-Greber E, Brockmeyer NH, Hartmann M, Gerken G, et al. Active syphilis in HIV infection: a multicentre retrospective survey. The German AIDS Study Group (GASG). Genitourin Med. 1996;72(3):176–81.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    DiCarlo RP, Martin DH. The clinical diagnosis of genital ulcer disease in men. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;25(2):292–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Zetola NM, Engelman J, Jensen TP, Klausner JD. Syphilis in the United States: an update for clinicians with an emphasis on HIV coinfection. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007;82(9):1091–102.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hutchinson CM, Hook EW 3rd, Shepherd M, Verley J, Rompalo AM. Altered clinical presentation of early syphilis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Ann Intern Med. 1994;121(2):94–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rompalo AM, Joesoef MR, O’Donnell JA, Augenbraun M, Brady W, Radolf JD, et al. Clinical manifestations of early syphilis by HIV status and gender: results of the syphilis and HIV study. Sex Transm Dis. 2001;28(3):158–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    de Vries HJ. Skin as an indicator for sexually transmitted infections. Clin Dermatol. 2014;32(2):196–208.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sands M, Markus A. Lues maligna, or ulceronodular syphilis, in a man infected with human immunodeficiency virus: case report and review. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;20(2):387–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wappner D, Carbia S, Gioseffi L, Schroh R, Losso MH. Diagnosis: malignant syphilis. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;25(6):1343. 447CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gjestland T. The Oslo study of untreated syphilis; an epidemiologic investigation of the natural course of the syphilitic infection based upon a re-study of the Boeck-Bruusgaard material. Acta Derm Venereol Suppl. 1955;35(Suppl 34):3-368; Annex I-LVI.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Dourmishev LA, Dourmishev AL. Syphilis: uncommon presentations in adults. Clin Dermatol. 2005;23(6):555–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Workowski KA, Berman SM. Centers for disease control and prevention sexually transmitted disease treatment guidelines. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53(Suppl 3):S59–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Regnier S, Ouagari Z, Perez ZL, Veziris N, Bricaire F, Caumes E. Cutaneous miliary resistant tuberculosis in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus: case report and literature review. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009;34(8):e690–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Dover JS, Johnson RA. Cutaneous manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Part II. Arch Dermatol. 1991;127(10):1549–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hide M, Hondo T, Yonehara S, Motohiro Y, Okano S. Infection with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare with abscess, ulceration and fistula formation. Br J Dermatol. 1997;136(1):121–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kiehn TE, White M. Mycobacterium haemophilum: an emerging pathogen. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1994;13(11):925–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sivanesan SP, Khera P, Buckthal-McCuin J, English JC 3rd. Cutaneous Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;62(6):e25–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Deps P, Lucas S, Porro AM, Maeda SM, Tomimori J, Guidella C, et al. Clinical and histological features of leprosy and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection in Brazil. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2013;38(5):470–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Daikos GL, Uttamchandani RB, Tuda C, Fischl MA, Miller N, Cleary T, et al. Disseminated miliary tuberculosis of the skin in patients with AIDS: report of four cases. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;27(1):205–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Stoler MH, Bonfiglio TA, Steigbigel RT, Pereira M. An atypical subcutaneous infection associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Am J Clin Pathol. 1983;80(5):714–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Cockerell CJ. Bacillary angiomatosis and related diseases caused by Rochalimaea. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995;32(5 Pt 1):783–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Plettenberg A, Lorenzen T, Burtsche BT, Rasokat H, Kaliebe T, Albrecht H, et al. Bacillary angiomatosis in HIV-infected patients—an epidemiological and clinical study. Dermatology. 2000;201(4):326–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Zarraga M, Rosen L, Herschthal D. Bacillary angiomatosis in an immunocompetent child: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol. 2011;33(5):513–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kaiser PO, Riess T, O'Rourke F, Linke D, Kempf VA. Bartonella spp.: throwing light on uncommon human infections. Int J Med Microbiol. 2011;301(1):7–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hoey JG, Valois-Cruz F, Goldenberg H, Voskoboynik Y, Pfiffner J, Tilton RC, et al. Development of an immunoglobulin M capture-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of acute infections with Bartonella henselae. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16(2):282–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Johnson RA. Dermatophyte infections in human immune deficiency virus (HIV) disease. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;43(5 Suppl):S135–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gupta AK, Sauder DN, Shear NH. Antifungal agents: an overview. Part II. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994;30(6):911–33; quiz 34–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Samaranayake LP. Oral mycoses in HIV infection. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1992;73(2):171–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Patton LL, McKaig RG, Eron JJ Jr, Lawrence HP, Strauss RP. Oral hairy leukoplakia and oral candidiasis as predictors of HIV viral load. AIDS. 1999;13(15):2174–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Patton LL, McKaig RG, Strauss RP, Eron JJ Jr. Oral manifestations of HIV in a southeast USA population. Oral Dis. 1998;4(3):164–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Greenwood I, Zakrzewska JM, Robinson PG. Changes in the prevalence of HIV-associated mucosal disease at a dedicated clinic over 7 years. Oral Dis. 2002;8(2):90–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Klein RS, Harris CA, Small CB, Moll B, Lesser M, Friedland GH. Oral candidiasis in high-risk patients as the initial manifestation of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1984;311(6):354–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Maden C, Hopkins SG, Lafferty WE. Progression to AIDS or death following diagnosis with a class IV non-AIDS disease: utilization of a surveillance database. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1994;7(9):972–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Nielsen H, Bentsen KD, Hojtved L, Willemoes EH, Scheutz F, Schiodt M, et al. Oral candidiasis and immune status of HIV-infected patients. J Oral Pathol Med. 1994;23(3):140–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Laine L, Bonacini M. Esophageal disease in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Arch Intern Med. 1994;154(14):1577–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Epstein E. Recurrences in herpes zoster. Cutis. 1980;26(4):378–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hope-Simpson RE. The nature of herpes zoster: a long-term study and a new hypothesis. Proc R Soc Med. 1965;58:9–20.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Helgason S, Sigurdsson J, Gudmundsson S. The clinical course of herpes zoster: a prospective stud in primary care. Eur J Gen Pract. 1996;2(1).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    van Velzen M, Ouwendijk WJ, Selke S, Pas SD, van Loenen FB, Osterhaus AD, et al. Longitudinal study on oral shedding of herpes simplex virus 1 and varicella-zoster virus in individuals infected with HIV. J Med Virol. 2013;85(9):1669–77.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Freeman EE, Weiss HA, Glynn JR, Cross PL, Whitworth JA, Hayes RJ. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection increases HIV acquisition in men and women: systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. AIDS. 2006;20(1):73–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wald A, Link K. Risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection in herpes simplex virus type 2-seropositive persons: a meta-analysis. J Infect Dis. 2002;185(1):45–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Gray RH, Wawer MJ, Brookmeyer R, Sewankambo NK, Serwadda D, Wabwire-Mangen F, et al. Probability of HIV-1 transmission per coital act in monogamous, heterosexual, HIV-1-discordant couples in Rakai, Uganda. Lancet. 2001;357(9263):1149–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Workowski KA, Berman S, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010;59(RR-12):1–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Cone RW, Hobson AC, Palmer J, Remington M, Corey L. Extended duration of herpes simplex virus DNA in genital lesions detected by the polymerase chain reaction. J Infect Dis. 1991;164(4):757–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Crooks RJ, Jones DA, Fiddian AP. Zoster-associated chronic pain: an overview of clinical trials with acyclovir. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1991;80:62–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Drake AL, Roxby AC, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie J, John-Stewart G, Wald A, et al. Valacyclovir suppressive therapy reduces plasma and breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels during pregnancy and postpartum: a randomized trial. J Infect Dis. 2012;205(3):366–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Perti T, Saracino M, Baeten JM, Johnston C, Diem K, Ocbamichael N, et al. High-dose valacyclovir decreases plasma HIV-1 RNA more than standard-dose acyclovir in persons coinfected with HIV-1 and HSV-2: a randomized crossover trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;63(2):201–8.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Field HJ, Mickleburgh I. The helicase-primase complex as a target for effective herpesvirus antivirals. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;767:145–59.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Tyring S, Wald A, Zadeikis N, Dhadda S, Takenouchi K, Rorig R. ASP2151 for the treatment of genital herpes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and valacyclovir-controlled, dose-finding study. J Infect Dis. 2012;205(7):1100–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Watson P. Postherpetic neuralgia. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84(6):690–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Lapolla W, Yentzer BA, Bagel J, Halvorson CR, Feldman SR. A review of phototherapy protocols for psoriasis treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;64(5):936–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Antman K, Chang Y. Kaposi's sarcoma. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(14):1027–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Schwartz RA, Micali G, Nasca MR, Scuderi L. Kaposi sarcoma: a continuing conundrum. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;59(2):179–206; quiz 7–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Uldrick TS, Whitby D. Update on KSHV epidemiology, Kaposi Sarcoma pathogenesis, and treatment of Kaposi Sarcoma. Cancer Lett. 2011;305(2):150–62.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Bernard HU, Burk RD, Chen Z, van Doorslaer K, zur Hausen H, de Villiers EM. Classification of papillomaviruses (PVs) based on 189 PV types and proposal of taxonomic amendments. Virology. 2010;401(1):70–9.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Lacey CJ, Lowndes CM, Shah KV. Chapter 4: burden and management of non-cancerous HPV-related conditions: HPV-6/11 disease. Vaccine. 2006;24(Suppl 3):S3/35–41.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Munoz N, Bosch FX, de Sanjose S, Herrero R, Castellsague X, Shah KV, et al. Epidemiologic classification of human papillomavirus types associated with cervical cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(6):518–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Frisch M, Biggar RJ, Engels EA, Goedert JJ, Group AI-CMRS. Association of cancer with AIDS-related immunosuppression in adults. JAMA. 2001;285(13):1736–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Chaturvedi AK, Madeleine MM, Biggar RJ, Engels EA. Risk of human papillomavirus-associated cancers among persons with AIDS. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101(16):1120–30.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Frisch M, Biggar RJ, Goedert JJ. Human papillomavirus-associated cancers in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000;92(18):1500–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Dolev JC, Maurer T, Springer G, Glesby MJ, Minkoff H, Connell C, et al. Incidence and risk factors for verrucae in women. AIDS. 2008;22(10):1213–9.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Johnston J, King CM, Shanks S, Khademi S, Nelson J, Yu J, et al. Prevalence of plantar verrucae in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection during the post-highly active antiretroviral therapy era. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2011;101(1):35–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Zancanaro PC, McGirt LY, Mamelak AJ, Nguyen RH, Martins CR. Cutaneous manifestations of HIV in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: an institutional urban clinic experience. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;54(4):581–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Chirgwin KD, Feldman J, Augenbraun M, Landesman S, Minkoff H. Incidence of venereal warts in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected women. J Infect Dis. 1995;172(1):235–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Cameron JE, Hagensee ME. Oral HPV complications in HIV-infected patients. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2008;5(3):126–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Greenspan D, de Villiers EM, Greenspan JS, de Souza YG, zur Hausen H. Unusual HPV types in oral warts in association with HIV infection. J Oral Pathol. 1988;17(9–10):482–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Völter C, He Y, Delius H, Roy-Burman A, Greenspan JS, Greenspan D, et al. Novel HPV types present in oral papillomatous lesions from patients with HIV infection. Int J Cancer. 1996;66(4):453–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Wieland U, Kreuter A. HPV vaccine against HPV infection and disease in males. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(22):2163; author reply 4-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Grulich AE, van Leeuwen MT, Falster MO, Vajdic CM. Incidence of cancers in people with HIV/AIDS compared with immunosuppressed transplant recipients: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2007;370(9581):59–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Silverberg MJ, Leyden W, Warton EM, Quesenberry CP Jr, Engels EA, Asgari MM. HIV infection status, immunodeficiency, and the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013;105(5):350–60.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Macaya A M-SC, Balaguer A, Barbera MJ. Interventions for anal canal intraepithelial neoplasia. Cochrane Libr. 2012.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Abraham AG, Strickler HD, Jing Y, Gange SJ, Sterling TR, Silverberg M, et al. Invasive cervical cancer risk among HIV-infected women: a North American multi-cohort collaboration prospective study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;62(4):405–13.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Diamond C, Taylor TH, Aboumrad T, Bringman D, Anton-Culver H. Increased incidence of squamous cell anal cancer among men with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Sex Transm Dis. 2005;32(5):314–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Piketty CDT, Da Costa M, et al. High prevalence of anal human papillomavirus infection and anal cancer precursors among HIV-infected persons in the absence of anal intercourse. Ann Intern Med. 2003;128(6):453–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Chin-Hong PVPJ. Natural history and clinical management of anal human papillomavirus disease in men and women infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35(9):1127–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Berry JM. Perspectives: anal cancer in HIV infection. Topics HIV Med. 2000;8:14–8.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Burnett-Hartman AN FQ, Popov V, et al. Human papillomavirus DNA is rarely detected in colorectal carcinomas and not associated with microsatellite instability: the Seattle Colon Cancer Family Registry. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2012.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Doorbar J, Quint W, Banks L, Bravo IG, Stoler M, Broker TR, et al. The biology and life-cycle of human papillomaviruses. Vaccine. 2012;30(Suppl 5):F55–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Chow LT, Broker TR, Steinberg BM. The natural history of human papillomavirus infections of the mucosal epithelia. APMIS. 2010;118(6–7):422–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Campo MS, Graham SV, Cortese MS, Ashrafi GH, Araibi EH, Dornan ES, et al. HPV-16 E5 down-regulates expression of surface HLA class I and reduces recognition by CD8 T cells. Virology. 2010;407(1):137–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Stanley MA. Epithelial cell responses to infection with human papillomavirus. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2012;25(2):215–22.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Heard I, Palefsky JM, Kazatchkine MD. The impact of HIV antiviral therapy on human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and HPV-related diseases. Antivir Ther. 2004;9(1):13–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Greenspan D, Canchola AJ, MacPhail LA, Cheikh B, Greenspan JS. Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on frequency of oral warts. Lancet. 2001;357(9266):1411–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Ramirez-Fort MK, Au SC, Javed SA, Loo DS. Management of cutaneous human papillomavirus infection: pharmacotherapies. Curr Probl Dermatol. 2014;45:175–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Kim KH, Horn TD, Pharis J, Kincannon J, Jones R, O'Bryan K, et al. Phase 1 clinical trial of intralesional injection of Candida antigen for the treatment of warts. Arch Dermatol. 2010;146(12):1431–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Leigh JE, Barousse M, Swoboda RK, Myers T, Hager S, Wolf NA, et al. Candida-specific systemic cell-mediated immune reactivities in human immunodeficiency virus-positive persons with mucosal candidiasis. J Infect Dis. 2001;183(2):277–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Kunkl A, Mortara L, Valle MT, Fenoglio D, Terranova MP, Megiovanni AM, et al. Recognition of antigenic clusters of Candida albicans by T lymphocytes from human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. J Infect Dis. 1998;178(2):488–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Horn TD, Johnson SM, Helm RM, Roberson PK. Intralesional immunotherapy of warts with mumps, Candida, and Trichophyton skin test antigens: a single-blinded, randomized, and controlled trial. Arch Dermatol. 2005;141(5):589–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Johnson SM, Roberson PK, Horn TD. Intralesional injection of mumps or Candida skin test antigens: a novel immunotherapy for warts. Arch Dermatol. 2001;137(4):451–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Wong A, Crawford RI. Intralesional Candida antigen for common warts in people with hiv. J Cutan Med Surg. 2013;17(5):313–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Summers P, Richards-Altmon P, Halder R. Treatment of recalcitrant verruca vulgaris with Candida antigen in patient with human immunodeficiency virus. J Drugs Dermatol. 2009;8(3):268–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Gilson RJ, Shupack JL, Friedman-Kien AE, Conant MA, Weber JN, Nayagam AT, et al. A randomized, controlled, safety study using imiquimod for the topical treatment of anogenital warts in HIV-infected patients. Imiquimod Study Group. AIDS (London, England). 1999;13(17):2397–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Schofer H. Evaluation of imiquimod for the therapy of external genital and anal warts in comparison with destructive therapies. Br J Dermatol. 2007;157(Suppl 2):52–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Wieland U, Brockmeyer NH, Weissenborn SJ, Hochdorfer B, Stucker M, Swoboda J, et al. Imiquimod treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive men. Arch Dermatol. 2006;142(11):1438–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Sanclemente G, Herrera S, Tyring SK, Rady PL, Zuleta JJ, Correa LA, et al. Human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load and HPV type in the clinical outcome of HIV-positive patients treated with imiquimod for anogenital warts and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007;21(8):1054–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Daayana S, Elkord E, Winters U, Pawlita M, Roden R, Stern PL, et al. Phase II trial of imiquimod and HPV therapeutic vaccination in patients with vulval intraepithelial neoplasia. Br J Cancer. 2010;102(7):1129–36.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Yan J, Chen SL, Wang HN, Wu TX. Meta-analysis of 5% imiquimod and 0.5% podophyllotoxin in the treatment of condylomata acuminata. Dermatology. 2006;213(3):218–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Komericki P, Akkilic-Materna M, Strimitzer T, Aberer W. Efficacy and safety of imiquimod versus podophyllotoxin in the treatment of anogenital warts. Sex Transm Dis. 2011;38(3):216–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Calista D. Topical cidofovir for severe cutaneous human papillomavirus and molluscum contagiosum infections in patients with HIV/AIDS. A pilot study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2000;14(6):484–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Snoeck R, Bossens M, Parent D, Delaere B, Degreef H, Van Ranst M, et al. Phase II double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the safety and efficacy of cidofovir topical gel for the treatment of patients with human papillomavirus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33(5):597–602.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Coremans G, Margaritis V, Snoeck R, Wyndaele J, De Clercq E, Geboes K. Topical cidofovir (HPMPC) is an effective adjuvant to surgical treatment of anogenital condylomata acuminata. Dis Colon Rectum. 2003;46(8):1103–8; discussion 8–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Matteelli A, Beltrame A, Graifemberghi S, Forleo MA, Gulletta M, Ciravolo G, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of topical 1% cidofovir cream for the treatment of external anogenital warts in HIV-infected persons. Sex Transm Dis. 2001;28(6):343–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Chang GJ, Berry JM, Jay N, Palefsky JM, Welton ML. Surgical treatment of high-grade anal squamous intraepithelial lesions: a prospective study. Dis Colon Rectum. 2002;45(4):453–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Orlando G, Fasolo MM, Beretta R, Merli S, Cargnel A. Combined surgery and cidofovir is an effective treatment for genital warts in HIV-infected patients. AIDS (London, England). 2002;16(3):447–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Gormley RH, Kovarik CL. Human papillomavirus-related genital disease in the immunocompromised host: Part II. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;66(6):883 e1–17; quiz 99-900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Sonnenblick M, Rosin A. Cardiotoxicity of interferon. A review of 44 cases. Chest. 1991;99(3):557–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Brockmeyer NH, Poffhoff A, Bader A, Hochdorfer B, Schlottmann R, Rasokat H, et al. Treatment of condylomata acuminata with pegylated interferon alfa-2b in HIV-infected patients. Eur J Med Res. 2006;11(1):27–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Niu Y, Na L, Feng R, Gong L, Zhao Y, Li Q, et al. The phytochemical, EGCG, extends lifespan by reducing liver and kidney function damage and improving age-associated inflammation and oxidative stress in healthy rats. Aging Cell. 2013;12(6):1041–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Zhou Q, Lu W, Niu Y, Liu J, Zhang X, Gao B, et al. Identification and quantification of phytochemical composition and anti-inflammatory, cellular antioxidant, and radical scavenging activities of 12 Plantago species. J Agric Food Chem. 2013.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Lamoral-Theys D, Pottier L, Dufrasne F, Neve J, Dubois J, Kornienko A, et al. Natural polyphenols that display anticancer properties through inhibition of kinase activity. Curr Med Chem. 2010;17(9):812–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Lambert JD, Elias RJ. The antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of green tea polyphenols: a role in cancer prevention. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010;501(1):65–72.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Frei B, Higdon JV. Antioxidant activity of tea polyphenols in vivo: evidence from animal studies. J Nutr. 2003;133(10):3275S–84S.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Tyring SK. Sinecatechins: effects on HPV-induced enzymes involved in inflammatory mediator generation. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2012;5(1):19–26.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Boniface K, Bak-Jensen KS, Li Y, Blumenschein WM, McGeachy MJ, McClanahan TK, et al. Prostaglandin E2 regulates Th17 cell differentiation and function through cyclic AMP and EP2/EP4 receptor signaling. J Exp Med. 2009;206(3):535–48.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Paulissen SM, van Hamburg JP, Davelaar N, Asmawidjaja PS, Hazes JM, Lubberts E. Synovial fibroblasts directly induce Th17 pathogenicity via the cyclooxygenase/prostaglandin E2 pathway, independent of IL-23. J Immunol. 2013;191(3):1364–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Yang L, Yamagata N, Yadav R, Brandon S, Courtney RL, Morrow JD, et al. Cancer-associated immunodeficiency and dendritic cell abnormalities mediated by the prostaglandin EP2 receptor. J Clin Invest. 2003;111(5):727–35.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Yokoyama M, Noguchi M, Nakao Y, Pater A, Iwasaka T. The tea polyphenol, (−)-epigallocatechin gallate effects on growth, apoptosis, and telomerase activity in cervical cell lines. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;92(1):197–204.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Qiao Y, Cao J, Xie L, Shi X. Cell growth inhibition and gene expression regulation by (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human cervical cancer cells. Arch Pharm Res. 2009;32(9):1309–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Amin AR, Wang D, Zhang H, Peng S, Shin HJ, Brandes JC, et al. Enhanced anti-tumor activity by the combination of the natural compounds (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and luteolin: potential role of p53. J Biol Chem. 2010;285(45):34557–65.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Zou C, Liu H, Feugang JM, Hao Z, Chow HH, Garcia F. Green tea compound in chemoprevention of cervical cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2010;20(4):617–24.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Tyring SK. Effect of sinecatechins on HPV-activated cell growth and induction of apoptosis. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2012;5(2):34–41.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Goldstone SE. Diagnosis and treatment of HPV-related squamous intraepithelial neoplasia in men who have sex with men. The PRN Notebook. 2005;10(4):11–6.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Brentjens MH, Yeung-Yue KA, Lee PC, et al. Human papillomavirus: a review. Dermatol Clin. 2002;20(2):315–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Kreuter A, Hochdorfer B, Stucker M, et al. Treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in patients with acquired HIV with imiquimod 5% cream. J Am Acad Derm. 2004;50(6):980–1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Ault KA. Managing genital warts and cervical HPV infection. Consultant. 2005;45(3):S16–21.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Palefsky JM, Berry JM, Jay N, et al. A trial of SGN-00101 (HspE7) to treat high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive individuals. AIDS. 2006;20(8):1151–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Weis SE, Vecino I, Pogoda JM, Susa JS. Treatment of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia with infrared coagulation in a primary care population of HIV-infected men and women. Dis Colon Rectum. 2012;55(12):1236–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Oehler-Janne C, Huguet F, Provencher S, Seifert B, Negretti L, Riener MO, et al. HIV-specific differences in outcome of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: a multicentric cohort study of HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(15):2550–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Yen Moore A, Tong LX, Moore T. Management of human papillomavirus-related anal and colon cancer. Curr Probl Dermatol. 2014;45:225–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Kraus SJ, Stone KM. Management of genital infection caused by human papillomavirus. Rev Infect Dis. 1990;12(Suppl 6):S620–S32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Chang GJ, Berry JM, Jay N, et al. Surgical treatment of high-grade anal squamous intraepithelial lesions: a prospective study. Dis Colon Rectum. 2002;45(4):453–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Chang GJ, Welton ML. Human papillomavirus, condylomata acuminata, and anal neoplasia. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2004;17(4):221–30.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Stanley M. Prophylactic HPV vaccines: prospects for eliminating ano-genital cancer. Br J Cancer. 2007;96:1320–3.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Petaja T, Keränen H, Karppa T, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in healthy boys aged 10–18 years. J Adolesc Health. 2009;44:33–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Ladizinski
    • 1
  • Marigdalia Ramirez-Fort
    • 2
  • Megan Shelton
    • 3
  • Aisha Sethi
    • 4
  1. 1.Stroger Hospital of Cook CountyChicagoUSA
  2. 2.SUNY Downstate Medical CenterBrooklynUSA
  3. 3.University of Texas Medical School at HoustonHoustonUSA
  4. 4.Yale University Dept of DermatologyNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations