Medicinal Plant Diseases Caused by Nematodes

  • Faezehossadat Abtahi
  • Mansoureh Bakooie


The agents that cause infectious disease in plants are pathogenic microorganisms, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and nematodes. Several hundred species of nematodes, however, are known to feed on living plants, obtaining their food with spears or stylets and causing a variety of plant diseases worldwide. Almost all plant pathogenic nematodes live part of their lives in the soil. Many live freely in the soil, feeding superficially on roots and underground stems, and in all, even in the specialized sedentary parasites, the eggs, the preparasitic juvenile stages, and the males are found in the soil for all or part of their lives. Nematodes occur in greatest abundance in the top 15 to 30 centimeters of soil. A few nematodes that attack the aboveground parts of plants not only spread through the soil as described earlier, but they are also splashed to the plants by falling rain or overhead watering. All plant parasitic nematodes belong to the phylum Nematoda. In this chapter, considering the importance of plant diseases caused by nematodes, we review some of the most important diseases of some of the medicinal plants.


Medicinal Plants Pathogenic microorganisms Loss Nematodes 


  1. Ahn YJ, Ohh SH, Kim JH, Lee SK (1983) Effect of root-knot nematode infection on ginseng growth and inorganic nutrients in ginseng roots. Korean J Ginseng Sci 7:35–43Google Scholar
  2. Akgul HC, Okten E (2001) A list of Tylenchida associated with poppy crops (Papaver somniferum L.) in Afyon region, Turkey. Nematology 3(3):289–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akhtar H, Farzana B, Kumar SP (2000) Interactive effect of Pratylenchus thornei and Meloidogyne incognita on the growth of Hyoscyamus niger. Indian J Nematology 30(2):165–169Google Scholar
  4. Alvani S, Mahdikhani E, Rouhani H (2013) New records of Boleodorus Thorne, 1941 from Berberis vulgaris L. Iran. Pakistan J Nematology 31(1):01–09Google Scholar
  5. Alvani S, Mahdikhani-Moghadam E, Rouhani H, Mohammadi A (2016) Four new records of plant parasitic nematodes from Iran. Turkish J Zool 40:601–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alvani S, Mahdikhani-Moghadam E, Rouhani H, Mohammadi A (2015a) Morphological, molecular and phylogenetic study of Filenchus aquilonius as a new species for Iranian nematofauna and some other known nematodes from Iran based on D2D3 segments of 28 srRNA gene. J Plant Pathol Microbiol 6(S3):1–7Google Scholar
  7. Aminu-Taiwo BR, Fawole B, Claudius-Cole AO (2015) Inter J Agric innovations and Res 3(5):1431–1435Google Scholar
  8. Ansari S, Charehgani H, Abdolahi M, Ghaderi R (2016) The occurrence of two migratory endoparasitic nematodes (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) on medicinal plants from Boyer-Ahmad region. In: Proceedings of 22nd Iranian plant protection congress. College of agriculture and natural resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran, 27–30 Aug, p 246Google Scholar
  9. Ayyar PNK (1926) A preliminary note on the root gal nematode, Heterodera radicicola and its economic importance in South India. Madras Agric J 14:113–118Google Scholar
  10. Bai H, Sheela MS, Jiji T (1995) Nemic association and avoidable yield loss in turmeric, Curcuma longa L. Pest Manage Hortic Ecosyst 1:105–110Google Scholar
  11. Bergeson GB, Green RJ Jr (1979) Damage to cultivars of peppermint, Mentha piperita, by the lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans in Indiana. Plant Dis Reporter 63(1):91–94Google Scholar
  12. Bernard EC, Eisenback JD (1997) Meloidogyne trifoliophila n. sp. (Nemata: Meloidogynidae) from Tennessee. J Nematology 29: 43–54Google Scholar
  13. Bernard EC, Jennings PL (1997) Host range and distribution of the clover root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne trifoliophila. Suppl to the J Nematology 29(4s):662–672Google Scholar
  14. Bhardwaj LN, Hogger CH (1984) Root-knot nematodes of chitwan district of Nepal. Nematologia Mediterr 12:155–158Google Scholar
  15. Bhat AR, Khan TA, Farooq U (2014) Occurrence of root-knot and reniform nematodes in ornamental plants grown in Aligarh Muslim University Campus, India. Am J Plant Sci 5:1885–1888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brito JA, Dickson DW, Kaur R, Vau S, Stanley JD (2015) The peach root-knot nematode: Meloidogyne floridensis, and its potential impact for the peach industry in Florida. Nematology Circular, 224Google Scholar
  17. Brzeski MW (1991) Taxonomy of geocenamus thorne and malek, 1968 (Nematoda: Belonolaimidae). Nematologica 37:125–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Budurova LB, Baicheva O, Milkova M (1996) Geocenamus dobroticus sp. n. (Nematoda: Dolichodoridae) from wheat fields in northeastern Bulgaria. Comptes Rendus de I′Academie Bulgare Des Sci 49:103–106Google Scholar
  19. Castillo P, Vovlas N (2007) Nematology monographs and perspectives. Volum 6. Pratylenchus (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae): diagnosis, biology, pathogenicity and management. In: Hunt DJ, Perry RN (eds) Brill, Leiden, Boston, p 523Google Scholar
  20. Chizhov VN, Subbotin SA (1985) A revision of nematodes of the subfamily Anguininae (Nematoda, Tylenchida) on the basis of their biological peculiarities. Zoologicheskii zhurnal 64:1476–1486Google Scholar
  21. Choi YE (1976) A study of ginseng parasitic nematodes. Monopoly Research Institute Report, Seoul, Korea, p 39Google Scholar
  22. Chung KC, Park SD, Khan Z, Kim BJ (2004) A survey for plant-parasitic nematodes associated with ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer). Korean J Med Crop Sci 12(5):355–359Google Scholar
  23. Cobb NA (1926) Nemic diseases of narcissus. Official Records, USDA, 5, 3Google Scholar
  24. Dale PS (1971) Root knot nematodes. N Z J Agric 122:33–37Google Scholar
  25. De Grisse A (1962) Paratylenchus vandenberandei n. sp. (Nematoda- Criconematidae) nouvelle espece de Paratylenchus, associee aux raciness ďagave au Kenya. Nematologica 8:229–232 (in French)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Decker H (1981) Plant nematodes and their control (phytonematology). In: Sveshnikova NM (ed) E.J. Brill, Leiden, New York, Kobenhavn, Koln, p 540Google Scholar
  27. Decker H (1989) Leaf-parasitic nematodes. In: Sveshnikova, N.M. (ed). Plant Nematodes and their control, Phytonematology, EJ BRILL, New York, pp: 354–368.Google Scholar
  28. Eapen SJ, Ramana KV, Sasikumar B, Johnson KG (1999) Screening of ginger and turmeric germplasm for resistance against root-knot nematodes. In: Dhwan SC (ed) Proceedings of national symposium on rational approaches in nematode management for sustainable agriculture, nematological society of India, New Delhi, pp 142–144Google Scholar
  29. Eppler A (1999) Die Fauna des Hopfens. In: Proceedings 51st international symposium on crop protection, Gent, Belgium. Universiteit Gent, vol 64, pp 133–147Google Scholar
  30. Epstein AH, Barker KR (1966) Pathogenicity of Xiphinema americanum on Vinca minor. Plant Dis Reporter 50:420–422Google Scholar
  31. Esser RP (1985) Characterization of potato rot nematode, Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, 1945 (Tylenchidae) for regulatory purposes. Nematology Circular, 124Google Scholar
  32. Evtushenko LI, Dorofeeva LV, Dobrovolskaya TG, Subbotin SA (1994) Coryneform bacteria from plant galls induced by nematodes of the subfamily Anguininae. Russ J Nematology 2(2): 99–104Google Scholar
  33. Foot MA, Wood FH (1982) Potato rot nematode, Ditylenchus destructor (Nematoda: Tylenchidae), infecting hops in New Zealand. N Z J Exp Agric 10:443–446Google Scholar
  34. Fortuner R (1970) On the morphology of Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie, 1942 and A. siddiqii n.sp. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoidea). J Helminthol 44(2):141–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fotedar DN, Handoo ZA (1977) Aerotylenchus safroni n.gen., n.sp. (Nematoda: Tylenchida) from Kashmir, India. Indian J Nematol 7(2):145–147Google Scholar
  36. Gamliel A, Yarden O (1998) Diversification of diseases affecting herb crops in Israel accompanies the increase in herb crop production. Phytoparasitica 26(1):1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gharabadiyan F, Jamali S, Ahmadiyan Yazdi A (2012) Weed hosts of root-knot nematodes in tomato fields. J Plant Prot Res 52(2):230–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Golden AM, Birchfield W (1965) Meloidogyne graminicola (Heteroderidae) a new species of root knot nematode from grass. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 32: 228–231Google Scholar
  39. Golden AM, Klindic O (1973) Heterodera achilleae n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Yarrow in Yugoslavia. J Nematology 5(3):196–201Google Scholar
  40. Goodey T (1938) Observations on Anguillulina millefolii (Low, 1874) Goodey, 1932, from galls on the leaves of yarrow Achillea millefolium L. J Helminthol 16(2):93–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Grasswitz T, James D (2008) Biology, phenology, and control of Hypena humuli (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an emerging pest of hops (Humulus lupulus) (Cannabaceae) in the USA. Inter J Pest Manage 54:333–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gunasekharan CR, Vadivelu S, Jayaraj S (1987) Experiments on nematodes of turmeric-a rev. In: Procceeding of the third group discussions on the nemtological problems of plantation crops 29–30 October. Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, pp 45–46Google Scholar
  43. Hafez SL, Sundararaj P, Barbour J (1999) Impact of Heterodera humuli on growth and mineral nutrition composition of hops Humulus lupulus cv. Cascade. Inter J Nematology 9:23–26Google Scholar
  44. Hafez SL, Sundararaj P, Handoo ZA, Siddiqi MR (2010) Occurrence and distribution of nematodes in Idaho crops. Inter J Nematology 20(1):91–98Google Scholar
  45. Haidar MG, Askary TN, Dwivedi NB (2001) Studies on nematodes of spices-III. Effect of different inoculum levels of Meloidogyne incognita on Carum copticum and Nigella sativa. Indian J Nematology 31(1):92–93Google Scholar
  46. Haidar MG, Jha RN, Nath RP (1998) Efficacy of some nematicides and organic soil amendments on nematode population and growth characters of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). J Res Birsa Agric Univ 10:211–213Google Scholar
  47. Haldar K, Gupta SK (2015) A report on occurrence of nematodes on medicinal plants of Narendrapur medicinal plants garden (west Bengal). Glob J Res Anal 4(11)Google Scholar
  48. Handoo ZA, Nyczepir AP, Esmenjaud D, vander Beek JG, Castagnone-Sereno P, Carta LK, Skantar AM, Higgins JA (2004) Morphological, molecular, and differential-host characterization of Meloidogyne floridensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode parasitizing peach in Florida. J Nematology 36:20–35Google Scholar
  49. Hanel L (2003) Soil nematodes in cambisol agroecosystems of the Czech Republic. Biologia (Bratislava) 58:205–216Google Scholar
  50. Hanel L (2010) An outline of soil nematode succession on abandoned fields in South Bohemia. Appl Soil Ecol 46:355–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Haseeb A (1994) Plant parasitic nematodes of medicinal and aromatic plants. In: Singh T, Trivedi PC (eds) Vistas in seed biology, vol 2. Printwell, Jaipur, India, pp 98–119Google Scholar
  52. Haseeb A, Pandey R (1989) Root-knot disease of Henbane, Hyoscyamus-a new disease record. Tropical pest management 35(2):212–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Haseeb A, Shukla PK (1996) Suppressive effect of Pralylenchus thomei on the physiological and biochemical parameters of Mentha piperita. Nematropica 26:81–85Google Scholar
  54. Hashemi SRR, Akbarinia A (2009) Nematodes of the order Tylenchida affecting five medicinal plants in Qazvin province. Iran J For Range Prot Res 6(2):138–141 (In Persian)Google Scholar
  55. Hay F, Pethybridge S (2003) Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with hop production in Tasmania, Australia. J Phytopathology 151:369–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hay FS, Close RC (1992) Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micoletzky, 1927) Thorne, 1939 in commercial hop (Humulus lupulus L.) gardens in New Zealand implication for the spread of Arabic Mozaic Virus. N Z J Crop and Hortic Sci 20:367–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hogger CH (1988) Plant parasitic nematodes in Swiss hop yeards. Hopfen-Rundschau 39:127–130Google Scholar
  58. Hofmanner B, Menzel R (1914) Neue arten freilebender nematoden aus der schweiz. Zoologischer anzeiger 44:80–91 (in German)Google Scholar
  59. Hooper DJ, Doncaster CC (1972) Stem and inflorescence galls on yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) caused by the nematode Anguina millefolii (Low, 1874) Filipjev, 1936. Plant Pathol 21(1):46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Husain SI, Khan AM (1968) Paurodontella n. gen. and three new species of nematodes from North India (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). Nematologica 13:493–500Google Scholar
  61. Ibrahim IKA, Handoo ZA (2016) Occurrence of phytoparasitic nematodes on some crop plants in northern Egypt. Pakistan J Nematology 34(2):163–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ibrahim IKA, Mokbel AA (2009) Occurrence and distribution of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. and their host plants in northern Egypt. The Egypt J Exp Biol (Botany) 5:125–129Google Scholar
  63. Idorenyin AU, Ugwuoke KI (2010) Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 on turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) as influenced by inoculum density and poultry manure amendment. Plant Pathol J 9(4):162–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ismail AE, El-Nagdi WMA, Youssef MMA (2002) Plant pararsitic nematodes associated with chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) in Egypt. Pak J Nematology 20(2):57–67Google Scholar
  65. Janardhanan KK (2002) Disease of major medicinal plants. Daya Publish, House Delhi, India, p 189Google Scholar
  66. Kasimova GA, Atakishieva YY (1980) The nematode fauna of Crocus sativus in Apsheron. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Azerbaidzhanskoi SSR (Azarbajcan SSR Elmlar Akademijasynyn Habarlari). Biol Nauki 1:94–98Google Scholar
  67. Kepenekci I (2003) Preliminary list of Tylenchida (Nematoda) associated with anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) in Turkey. Pak J Nematology 21(1):37–40Google Scholar
  68. Khan E, Basir MA (1964) Boleodorus impar n. sp. (Nematoda: Tylenchida) from India. Proceedings of helminthological society of washington, 31:187–190Google Scholar
  69. Khanzada SA, Naeemullah M, Munir A, Iftikhar S, Masood S (2012) Plant parasitic nematodes associated with different Mentha species. Pak J Nematology 30(1):21–26Google Scholar
  70. Khare MN, Tiwari SP, Sharma YK (2014) Disease problems in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graceum L.) cultivation and their management for production of quality pathogen free seeds. Inter J seed spices 4(2):11–17Google Scholar
  71. Kim JH, Jeon YH, Park H, Lee B-D, Cho D-H, Park B-Y, Khan Z, Kim YH (2006) The root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus subpenetrans, on ginseng (Panax ginseng) in Korea. Nematology 8(4):637–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Koliopanos CN, Kalyviotis-Gazelas GL (1979) Nematodes and host plants identified for the first time in Greece. Annales de l’Institut phytopayhologique benaki 12:50–58Google Scholar
  73. Koshy PK, Sosamma VK (1975) Host-range of Radopholus similis (Cobb, 1893) Thorne, 1949. Indian J Nematology 5:255–257Google Scholar
  74. Koshy PK, Eapen SJ, Pandey R (2005) Nematode parasites of spices, condiments and medicinal plants. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J (eds) plant parasitic nematodes in sub-tropical and tropical agriculture, 2nd edn. CAB publishing, USA, pp 751–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kumar K, Sharma MK, Chandrawat BS, Srivastava AS, Thagaria G (2016) Studies on life cycle of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Curr Nematology 27(1):39–43Google Scholar
  76. Kumar V, Haseeb A (2011) Effect of different initial population densities of Meloidogyne incognita on the root-knot development, nematode multiplication, plant growth and seed yield of Plantago ovata. Curr Nematology 22(1, 2):45–48Google Scholar
  77. Lima MB, Siddiqi MR (1963) Boleodorus volutus n. sp. (Nematoda: Nothotylenchinae) found in soil about grass roots in England. Nematologica 9:19–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Liskova M, Renco M (2007) Communities of free living and plant parasitic nematodes in hop gardens in Slovakia. Helminthologia 44(2):80–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lopez-Robles J (1995) Distribution of Heterodera humuli in Spain. Nematologia Mediterr 23:73–75Google Scholar
  80. Low F (1874) Tylenchus millefolii n.sp., eine neue gallenerzeugende Anguillulide. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 24: 17–24Google Scholar
  81. MacGowan JB, Langdon KR (1989) Hosts of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola. Nematology circular 172Google Scholar
  82. Magbool MA, Hashmi S, Qasim M (1985) Identification of species and races of Meloidogyne spp. and some new host records from Sind and Baluchistan. Nematologia Mediterr 13:119–121Google Scholar
  83. Maggenti AR (1962) Hot water treatment of hop rhizomes for nematode control. Calif Agric 16:11–12Google Scholar
  84. Mahaffee WF, Pethybridge SJ, Gent DH (2009) Compendium of hop diseases and pests. Am Phytopathological Soc. St. Paul, MNGoogle Scholar
  85. Mahdikhani ME, Mokaram HA (2011) Identification of plant parasitic nematodes of Rosmarinus officinalis in campus Ferdowsi university of Mashhad. J Plant Prot (Agricultural Science and Technology) 24(4):428–436 (In persian)Google Scholar
  86. Mahdikhani E, Alvani S (2013) Plant parasitic nematodes from rhizosphere of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) with two new records of Geocenamus squamatus and Filenchus pratensis fron Iran. Pak J Nematology 31(2):99–103Google Scholar
  87. Malan AP, Pieterse W, Britis G (1991) Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with hops (Humulus lupulus L.) in South Africa. Phytopathologica 23:173–175Google Scholar
  88. Mani A, Naidu PH, Madhavachari S (1987) Occurrence and control of Meloidogyne incognita on turmeric in Andhra Pradesh, India. Inter Nematology Netw Newsl 4:13–18Google Scholar
  89. Mathur VK, Lal A, Sanwal KC, Singh RV (1980) Record of plant parasitic nematodes on Glycyrrhiza glabra. Indian J Nematology 10(2):257–258Google Scholar
  90. McCuiston JL, Hudson LC, Subbotin SA, Davis EL, Warfield, CY (2007) Conventional and PCR detection of Aphelenchoides fragariae in diverse ornamental host plant species. J Nematology 39:343–355Google Scholar
  91. McNamara DG, Eppler A (1989) The Longidoridae occuring in the German hop-growing regions. In: Eppler A (ed) Deutsche Phytomedizinische Gesellschaft. Proceedings international workshop on hop virus diseases rauischholzhausen, pp 195–197Google Scholar
  92. McSorley R, Frederick JJ (1994) Response of some common annual bedding plants to three species of Meloidogyne. Suppl J Nematology 26(4s):773–777Google Scholar
  93. McSorley R, Frederick JJ (2001) Host suitability of some vinca and salvia cultivars to two isolates of root-knot nematodes. In: Proceedings of the Florida state horticultural society, vol 114, pp 239–241Google Scholar
  94. Mende NV, Mcnamara DG (1995a) Biology of the hop cyst nematode Heterodera humuli I. Life cycle and survival. Annu of Appl Biol 126:505–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mende NV, Mcnamara DG (1995b) Biology of the hop cyst nematode Heterodera humuli II. Host-parasite relationship of the nematode and its interaction with Verticillium alboatrum. Annu Appl Biol 126:517–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Merrifield KJ, Ingham RE (1996) Population dynamics of Pratylenchus penetrans, Paratylenchus sp., and Criconemella xenoplax on western Oregon peppermint. J Nematology 28(4):557–564Google Scholar
  97. Metcalf H (1903) Cultural studies of a nematode associated with plant decay. Trans Am Microscopical Soc 24:89–102Google Scholar
  98. Midha RL, Trivedi PC (1989) Evaluation of Cumin varieties against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Indian J Nematology 19(2):264Google Scholar
  99. Minagawa N (1985) A new nematode, Merlinius acuminatus n. sp. (Tylenchida: Tylenchorhynchidae) from Japan. Edaphologia 34:15–20Google Scholar
  100. Mohanta S, Swain PK, Sial P, Rout GR (2015) Morphological and molecular screening of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Cultivars for resistance against parasitic nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. J Plant Pathol Microbiol 6(5):270–75Google Scholar
  101. Nadakal AM, Thomas N (1964) Studies on plant parasitic nematodes of Kerala. II. A list of plants attacked by root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne spp. Curr Sci 33:247–248Google Scholar
  102. Nasresfahani M, Mohsenzadeh Kermani A, Zargani M, Alizadeh M (2015) Evaluation nematode of some medicinal plant in Isfahan. Indian J Fundam Appl Life Sci 5(S1):2665–2674Google Scholar
  103. Nirula KK, Kumar R (1963) Collateral hosts of root-knot nematodes. Curr Sci 32:221–222Google Scholar
  104. O’Bannon JH (1975) Nematode survey in Ethiopia. Institute of Agricultural research of Adis ababa, Ethiopia and FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  105. Ohh SH, Lee SK, Lee JH, Han SC (1983) New root rot disease of Panax ginseng due to Ditylenchus destructot Thorne. Korean J Plant Pathology 22:181–185Google Scholar
  106. Ohh SH, Yu YH, Cho DH, Lee JH, Kim YH (1986) Effect of chemical treatments on population changes of Ditylenchus destructor and responses of Panax ginseng. Korean J Plant Prot 25:169–173Google Scholar
  107. Ortuno N, Oros R (2002) Nematodos que atacan cultivos ornamentals. Manejo integrado de plagas y agroecologia (Costa Rica) 66:76–81Google Scholar
  108. Pandey R, Gupta ML, Singh HB, Kumar S (1999) The influence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alone or in combination with Meloidogyne incognita on Hyoscyamus niger L. Biores Technol 69:275–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Park SD, Khan Z, Kim YH (2007) Evaluation of medicinal herbs for resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in Korea. Nematropica 37(1):73–77Google Scholar
  110. Patel BA, Patel RG, Patel HR, Vyas RV, Patel BN, Patel JG (2002) Management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica pathotype 2 in fennel nursery. In: Proceedings of national symposium on biodiversity and management of nematodes in cropping systems for sustainable agriculture. Rajasthan agricultural university, Jaipur. 11–13 Nov, pp 128–130Google Scholar
  111. Patel BA, Vyas RV, Patel BN, Patel JG (2008) Management of root-knot nematodes in turmeric. Trends in Biosci 1(1 & 2):37–39Google Scholar
  112. Patel DJ, Patel SK, Patel HV (1995) Yield loss estimation in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) due to root-knot nematode. J Spices Aromat Crops 4:84–85Google Scholar
  113. Patel SK, Patel HV, Patel AD, Patel DJ (2005) Integrated management of root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica (Treub) Chitwood in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill). J Spices Aromat Crops 14:152–154Google Scholar
  114. Pauletti G, Echeverrigaray S (2002) Prevalence of root-knot nematodes in cultivated herbs of the labiaceae family in Rio Grande Do Sul (Brazil). Acta Hort 569:311–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Pavlyuk LV (1972) Analysis of the nematode fauna of Valeriana officinalis L., cultivated in the Moscow region. Vestnik Zoologii 6:30–34Google Scholar
  116. Percival J (1895) An eelworm disease of hops. Natural science 5:187–197Google Scholar
  117. Pinkerton JN, Jensen HJ (1983) Chemical control of Longidorus elongates on peppermint with nonvolatile nematicides. Plant Dis 67:201–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Piron PP (1975) Diseases and pest of ornamental plants. A wiley-Interscience Publication. Wiley, New York. Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto, p 584Google Scholar
  119. Poornima K, Vadivelu S (1998) Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). In: Proceedings of the 3rd international symposium of Afro-Asia society of nematologists (TISAASN), April 16–19, Sugarcane reading institute (ICAR), Coimbatore, India, UK, pp 29–31Google Scholar
  120. Poornima K, Sivagami V (1999) Occurrence and seasonal population behavior of phytonematodes in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Pest Manage Hortic Ecosyst 5(1):42–45Google Scholar
  121. Prasath D, Eapen SJ, Sasikumar B (2016) Performance of turmeric (Curcuma longa) genotypes for yield and root-knot nematode resistance. Indian J Agric Sci 86(9):1189–1192Google Scholar
  122. Rakesh P, Kumar S, Gupta M, Singh HN (1999) Root-knot diseases on opium poppy—a new disease record. Indian Phytopathol 52:1–101Google Scholar
  123. Ramakrishnan S, Senthilkumar T (2009) Non-chemical management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal.) and Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.). Indian J Nematology 39(2):170–174Google Scholar
  124. Rashid A, Fasahat A, Khan A, Khan AM (1973) Plant parasitic nematodes associated with vegetables, fruits, cereals and other crops in north India I. Uttar Pradesh. Indian J Nematology 3:8–23Google Scholar
  125. Ray S, Mohanty KC, Mohapatra SN, Patrick PR, Ray P (1995) Yield losses in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) due to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). J Spices Aromat Crops 4:67–69Google Scholar
  126. Reis LGL, Sequeira OA, Silva CAO (1986) Phytoparasitic nematodes in Pourtuguese hop gardens. Revue de nematologie 9:305–306Google Scholar
  127. Renco M, Cermak V, Gaar V (2011) Vertical distribution of hop cyst nematode in hop gardens in central Europe. J Nematology 43(3–4):220–222Google Scholar
  128. Renco M, Liskova M, Čerevkova A (2010) Seasonal fluctuations of the nematode communities in a hop garden soil. Helminthologia 47:115–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Russo G, Soppelsa O, D’Errico G (2008) Infestation of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on two flower plants of new introduction: Calendula officinalis L. and Paeonia lactiflora Pall. REDIA—J Xoology, Xci 163–166Google Scholar
  130. Šaly A, Kriz J (1961) Hop cyst nematode—pest of hop. Chmelařství 34:43Google Scholar
  131. Sanchez-Monge A, Flores L, Salazar L, Hockland S, Bert W (2015) An updated list of the plants associated with plant-parasitic Aphelenchoides (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) and its implications for plant-parasitism within this genus. Zootaxa 4013(2):207–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Sasser JN, Carter CC, Hartman KM (1984) Standardization of host suitability studies and reporting of resistance to root-knot nematodes. North Carolina State Graphics Raleigh, NC, USA, p 7Google Scholar
  133. Schenk PK (1970) Root rot in Crocus. Neth J Plant Pathol 76:159–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Schmitt CG, Lipscomb B (1975) Pathogens of selected members of the Papaveraceae: an annotated bibliography. Beltsville, MD, USA, Agricultural Research Service, Northeastern Region No. 62, p 186Google Scholar
  135. Seinhorst JW (1998) The common relation between population density and plant weight in pot and microplot experiments with various nematode plant combinations. Fundam Appl Nematology 21(5):459–468Google Scholar
  136. Shah HM, Patel DJ (1979) Occurrence of root-knot disease in cumin. Indian J Nematology 9:179–180Google Scholar
  137. Shamsi MA (1979) Basirolaimus gen. n. (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae) with the description of Basirolaimus sacchari n. sp. from India. Nematologia Mediterr 7:15–19Google Scholar
  138. Sheikh JH, Chishti MZ, Rasheed M, Tak I-ur-R, Ali Dar S (2014) Occurrence of Helicotylenchus Chishti sp.n. (order = Tylenchida) on Crocus sativus (Saffron) and its genetic buildup analysis and a note on its possible management strategy. J Zoolog Biosci 1(3):10–14Google Scholar
  139. Shukla PK, Haseeb A, Srivastava NK (1998) Influence of pH on reproduction and damage potential of Pratylenchus thornei on Mentha piperita. Fundam Appl Nematology 21(1):103–105Google Scholar
  140. Sosamma VK, Sudararaju P, Koshy PK (1979) Effect of Radopholus similis on turmeric. Indian J Nematology 9:27–31Google Scholar
  141. Southey JE (1993) Nematode pest of ornamental and bulb crops. In: Evans K, Trudgill DL, Webster JM (eds) Plant parasitic nematodes in temperate agriculture. Cambridge, Inglaterra, CAB Internacional, p 648Google Scholar
  142. Southey JF (1970) Laboratory methods for work with plant and soil nematodes. Technical bulletin number 2, Ministry of agriculture, fish and food. Her majesty stationary office, London, p 148Google Scholar
  143. Steiner G, Buhrer EM (1932) The nonspecificity of the brown-ring symptoms in narcissus attacked by nematodes. Phytopathol 22:927–928Google Scholar
  144. Sturhan D, Brzeski MW (1991) Stem and bulb nematodes, Ditylenchus spp. In: Nickle WR (ed) Manual of agricultural nematology, pp 423–464. Marcel Decker Inc., New York. (p 1064)Google Scholar
  145. Susana M, De N, Santos A (1967) Meloidogyne ardenensis n.sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), a new British species of root-knot nematode. Nematologica 13:593–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Tedford EC, Fortnum BA (1988) Weed hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita common in tobacco fields in South Carolina. J Nematology 20(2S):102–105Google Scholar
  147. Thorne G (1941) Some nematodes of the family Tylenchidae which do not possess a valvular median esophageal bulb. Great Basin Nat 2:37–85Google Scholar
  148. Udo IA, Nwagwu FA (2007) The response of an exotic tomato cultivar F1 Mongal STRO 1 to different population densities of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and M. javanica. J Appl Sci 10:7243–7253Google Scholar
  149. Van Den Berg E (1987) Hemicycliophora species from the Cape province with a key to the South African species (Hemicycliophoridae: Nematoda). Phytophylactica 19:303–307Google Scholar
  150. Venkitesan TS, Charles JS (1980) Plant parasitic nematodes associated with turmeric in Kerala and nature of infection by Meloidogyne sp. In: Proceedings of the national seminar on ginger and turmeric. Calicut, April 8–9Google Scholar
  151. Vilsoni F, McClure MA, Butler LD (1976) Occurrence, host range and histopathology of Radopholus similis in ginger (Zingiber officinale). Plant Dis Reporter 60(5):417–420Google Scholar
  152. Voigt W (1894) Neue Varietät des Rübennematoden (Heterodera schachtii) S.B. niederrhein. Ges Nat Heilk 51:94–97Google Scholar
  153. Waele DD, Jordaan EM, Basson S (1990) Host status of seven weed species and their effects on Ditylenchus destructor infestation of peanut. J Nematology 22(3):292–296Google Scholar
  154. Walker JT (1995) Garden herbs as hosts for southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood, race 3]. Hort Sci 30(2):292–293Google Scholar
  155. Walker JT, Melin JB, Davis J (1994) Sensitivity of bedding plants to southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita race 3. J Nematology 26(4S):778–781Google Scholar
  156. Walker M (1965) Some records of known and suspected plant-parasitic nematodes encountered in Canada in 1965. Can Plant Dis Surv 45(4):127–129Google Scholar
  157. Wasilewska L (1979) The structure and function of soil nematode communities in natural ecosystems and agrocenoses. Pol Ecol Stud 5:97–145Google Scholar
  158. Whitehead AG (1968) Taxonomy of Meloidogyne (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) with descriptions of four new species. Trans Zool Soc London 31:263–401Google Scholar
  159. Yeates GW, Wouts WM (1992) Helicotylenchus spp. (Nematoda: Tylenchida) from managed soils in New Zealand. N Z J Zool 13:13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Zarina B, Maqbool MA (1998) Descriptions and observations on two new and two known species of the genus Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936 (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Pakistan. Pak J Nematology, 16: 13-24Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesArak UniversityArakIran
  2. 2.Plant Pathology Department, Faculty of AgricultureTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations