Advertisement

Application of Biomaterials for Elimination of Damaging Contaminants from Aqueous Media

  • Vaishali Tomar
  • Dinesh KumarEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series on Polymer and Composite Materials book series (SSPCM)

Abstract

Natural materials are plentifully accessible low cost. A natural resource which is nontoxic to the ecosystem. Because of the excess amount of inorganic pollutants, organic pollutants and pathogens in water, it is harmful to human being. These contaminants should be taken out by the natural adsorbent due to the harmful force of these contaminants. This chapter surveys the current evolution of natural clays and their modified forms as adsorbing agents for treating drinking water. This chapter explores the adaptable nature of natural materials and nanomaterials with their capability to absorb multiplicity of contaminants, which are present in the drinking water. The properties and alteration of the natural adsorbent and its significance in removing a detailed type of contaminants are identified. The efficacy of the natural and modified adsorbents is compared to active technologies, materials and methods, and it is considerably higher or similar.

Keywords

Water Contaminants Adsorption Removal Clean water 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge support from the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Higher Education, Government of India under the scheme of Establishment of Centre of Excellence for Training and Research in Frontier Areas of Science and Technology (FAST), vide letter No, F. No. 5-5/201 4-TS. Vll.

References

  1. 1.
  2. 2.
    Lin, S.H., and R.S. Juang. 2002. Heavy metal removal from water by sorption using surfactant-modified montmorillonite. Journal of Hazardous Materials 92 (3): 315–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Krishna, B.S., D.S.R. Murty, and B.S. Jai Prakash. 2000. Thermodynamics of chromium(VI) anionic species sorption onto surfactant-modified montmorillonite clay. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 229 (1): 230–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bailey, S.E., T.J. Olin, R.M. Bricka, and D.D. Adrian. 1999. A review of potentially low-cost sorbents for heavy metals. Water Research 33 (11): 2469–2479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Babel, S., and T.A. Kurniawan. 2003. Low-cost adsorbents for heavy metals uptake from contaminated water: A review. Journal of Hazardous Materials 97 (1–3): 219–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Virta, R.L. 1996. U.S. Geological Survey-Minerals Information, http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/190496.pdf.
  7. 7.
    Pinnavaia, T.J. 1983. Intercalated clay catalysts. Science 220 (4595): 365–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cadena, F. Rizvi, R. and Peters, R. W. (1990). Feasibility studies for the removal of heavy metal from solution using tailored bentonite, hazardous and industrial wastes. In Proceedings of the 22nd Mid-Atlantic Industrial Waste Conference, Drexel University, 77–94.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tanabe, K. 1981. Solid acid and base catalysis. In Catalysis—Science and technology, edited by J.R. Anderson and M. Boudart, 231.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Olphen, H. 1977. An introduction to clay colloid chemistry. New York, NY, USA: Wiley-Interscience.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Churchman, G.J. 2002. Formation of complexes between bentonite and different cationic polyelectrolytes and their use as sorbents for non-ionic and anionic pollutants. Applied Clay Science 21 (3–4): 177–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Breen, C. 1999. The characterisation and use of polycationexchanged bentonites. Applied Clay Science 15 (1–2): 187–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Radian, A., and Y.G. Mishael. 2008. Characterizing and designing polycation—clay nanocomposites as a basis for imazapyr controlled release formulations. Environmental Science and Technology 42 (5): 1511–1516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zadaka, D., S. Nir, A. Radian, and Y.G. Mishael. 2009. Atrazine removal from water by polycation-clay composites: Effect of dissolved organic matter and comparison to activated carbon. Water Research 43 (3): 677–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Darder, M., M. Colilla, and E. Ruiz-Hitzky. 2005. Chitosan-clay nanocomposites: Application as electrochemical sensors. Applied Clay Science 28 (1–4): 199–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Darder, M., M.L. Blanco, P. Aranda, A.J. Aznar, J. Bravo, and E. Ruiz-Hitzky. 2006. Microfibrous chitosan—sepiolite nanocomposites. Chemistry of Materials 18 (6): 1602–1610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ruiz-Hitzky, E., M. Darder, and P. Aranda. 2005. Functional biopolymer nanocomposites based on layered solids. Journal of Materials Chemistry 15 (35–36): 3650–3662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    An, J.H., and S. Dultz. 2007. Adsorption of tannic acid on chitosan montmorillonite as a function of pH and surface charge properties. Applied Clay Science 36 (4): 256–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Li, J.M., X.G. Meng, C.W. Hu, and J. Du. 2009. Adsorption of phenol, p-chlorophenol, and p-nitrophenol onto functional chitosan. Bioresource Technology 100 (3): 1168–1173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bhattacharyya, K.G., and S.S. Gupta. 2008. Adsorption of a few heavy metals on natural and modified kaolinite and montmorillonite: A review. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 140 (2): 114–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ulmanu, M., E. Marañón, Y. Fernández, L. Castrillón, I. Anger, and D. Dumitriu. 2003. Removal of copper and cadmium ions from diluted aqueous solutions by low cost and waste material adsorbents. Water, Air, and Soil pollution 142 (1–4): 357–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yavuz, O., Y. Altunkaynak, and F. Guzel. 2003. Removal of copper, nickel, cobalt and manganese from aqueous solution by kaolinite. Water Research 37 (4): 948–952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bhattacharyya, K.G., and S.S. Gupta. 2007. Adsorption of Co(II) from aqueous medium on natural and acid activated kaolinite and montmorillonite. Separation Science and Technology 42 (15): 3391–3418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bhattacharyya, K.G., and S.S. Gupta. 2006. Adsorption of Fe(III) from water by natural and acid activated clays: Studies on equilibrium isotherm, kinetics, and thermodynamics of interactions. Adsorption 12 (3): 185–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gupta, S.S., and K.G. Bhattacharyya. 2005. Interaction of metal ions with clays: I. A case study with Pb(II). Applied Clay Science 30 (3–4): 199–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mellah, A., and S. Chegrouche. 1997. The removal of zinc from aqueous solutions by natural bentonite. Water Research 31 (3): 621–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Oliveira, L.C.A., R.V.R.A. Rios, J.D. Fabris, K. Sapag, V.K. Garg, and R.M. Lago. 2003. Clay-iron oxide magnetic composites for the adsorption of contaminants in water. Applied Clay Science 22 (4): 169–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Etci, Ö., N. Bektaş, and M.S. Öncel. 2010. Single and binary adsorption of lead and cadmium ions from aqueous solution using the clay mineral beidellite. Environmental Earth Sciences 61 (2): 231–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gecol, H., P. Miakatsindila, E. Ergican, and R.H. Sage. 2006. Biopolymer coated clay particles for the adsorption of tungsten from water. Desalination 197 (1–3): 165–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Aytas, S., M. Yurtlu, and R. Donat. 2009. Adsorption characteristic of U(VI) ion onto thermally activated bentonite. Journal of Hazardous Materials 172 (2–3): 667–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mishra, P.C., and R.K. Patel. 2009. Removal of lead and zinc ions from water by low-cost adsorbents. Journal of Hazardous Materials 168 (1): 319–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yuan, P., M. Fan, and D. Yang. 2009. Montmorillonite-supported magnetite nanoparticles for the removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solutions. Journal of Hazardous Materials 166 (2–3): 821–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Angove, M.J., B.B. Johnson, and J.D. Wells. 1998. The influence of temperature on the adsorption of cadmium(II) and cobalt(II) on kaolinite. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 204 (1): 93–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Doušová, B., L. Fuitová, and T. Grygar. 2009. Modified aluminosilicates as low-cost sorbents of As(III) from anoxic groundwater. Journal of Hazardous Materials 165 (1–3): 134–140.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sajidu, S.M.I., I. Persson, W.R.L. Masamba, E.M.T. Henry, and D. Kayambazinthu. 2006. Removal of Cd2+, Cr3+, Cu2+, Hg2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ cations and AsO34 anions from aqueous solutions by mixed clay from Tundulu in Malawi and characterisation of the clay. Water SA 32 (4): 519–526.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bleiman, N., and Y.G. Mishael. 2010. Selenium removal from drinking water by adsorption to chitosan-clay composites and oxides: Batch and columns tests. Journal of Hazardous Materials 183 (1–3): 590–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Na, P., X. Jia, and B. Yuan. 2010. Arsenic adsorption on Ti-pillared montmorillonite. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 85 (5): 708–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bulut, Y., G. Akçay, D. Elma, and I.E. Serhatlı. 2009. Synthesis of clay-based superabsorbent composite and its sorption capability. Journal of Hazardous Materials 171 (1–3): 717–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chaturvedi, A.K., K.P. Yadava, K.C. Pathak, and V.N. Singh. 1990. Defluoridation of water by adsorption on fly ash. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 49 (1–2): 41–69.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sujana, M.G., R.S. Thakur, and S.B. Rao. 1998. Removal of fluoride from aqueous solution by using alum sludge. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 206 (1): 94–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Toyoda, A., and T. Taira. 2000. A new method for treating fluorine wastewater to reduce sludge and running costs. IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 13 (3): 305–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ayoob, S., and A.K. Gupta. 2006. Fluoride in drinking water: A review on the status and stress effects. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 36 (6): 433–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    WHO (World Health Organization). 1984. Fluorine and fluorides. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization: Environmental Health Criteria.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Thakre, D., S. Rayalu, R. Kawade, S. Meshram, J. Subrt, and N. Labhsetwar. 2010. Magnesium incorporated bentonite clay for defluoridation of drinking water. Journal of Hazardous Materials 180 (1–3): 122–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kamble, S.P., P. Dixit, S.S. Rayalu, and N.K. Labhsetwar. 2009. Defluoridation of drinking water using chemically modified bentonite clay. Desalination 249 (2): 687–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ma, Y.X., F.M. Shi, X.L. Zheng, J. Ma, and J.M. Yuan. 2005. Defluoridation from aqueous solutions by Zr-loaded bentonite. Journal of Harbin Institute of Technology (New Series) 12 (1): 224–229.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Dhillon, A., and D. Kumar. 2015. Development of a nanoporous adsorbent for the removal of health-hazardous fluoride ions from aqueous systems. Journal of Material Chemistry A 3: 4215–4228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dhillon, A., and D. Kumar. 2015. Nanocomposite for the detoxification of drinking water: Effective removal of fluoride and bactericidal activity. New Journal of Chemistry 39: 9143–9154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tomar, V., S. Prasad, and D. Kumar. 2013. Adsorptive removal of fluoride from water samples using Zr-Mn composite material. Microchemical Journal 111: 116–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bejaoui, I., A. Mnif, and B. Hamrouni. 2014. Performance of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration in the removal of fluoride from model water and metal packaging industrial effluent. Separation Science and Technology 49: 1135–1145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kotecha, P.V., S.V. Patel, K.D. Bhalani, D. Shah, V.S. Shah, and K.G. Mehta. 2012. Prevalence of dental fluorosis & dental caries in association with high levels of drinking water fluoride content in a District of Gujarat, India. Development Foundation, New Delhi. Indian Journal of Medical Research 135: 873–877.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cui, H., Y. Qian, H. An, C. Sun, J. Zhai, and Q. Li. 2012. Electrochemical removal of fluoride from water by PAOA modified carbon felt electrodes in a continuous flow reactor. Water Research 46: 3943–3950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Guo, Q., and E.J. Reardon. 2012. Fluoride removal from water by meixnerite and its calcination product. Applied Clay Science 56: 7–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ramanjaneyulu, V., M. Jaipal, N. Yasovardhan, and S. Sharada. 2013. Kinetic studies on removal of fluoride from drinking water by using tamarind shell and pipal leaf powder. International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development 5: 146.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sakhare, N., S. Lunge, R. Rayalu, S. Bakardjiva, J. Subrt, S. Devotta, and N. Labhsetwar. 2012. Defluoridation of water using calcium aluminate material. Chemical Engineering Journal 203: 406–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Chakrabarty, S., and H.P. Sarma. 2012. Defluoridation of contaminated drinking water using neem charcoal adsorbent: Kinetics and equilibrium studies. International Journal of Chem Tech Research 4: 511–516.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Boubakri, A., N. Helali, M. Tlili, and M.B. Amor. 2014. Fluoride removal from diluted solutions by Donnan dialysis using full factorial design. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering 31 (3): 461–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Babu, J.M., and S. Goel. 2013. Defluoridation of drinking water in batch and continuous-flow electrocoagulation systems. Pollution Research 32 (4): 727–736.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Andey, S., P.K. Labhasetwar, G. Khadse, P. Gwala, P. Pal, and P. Deshmukh. 2013. Performance evaluation of solar power based electrolytic defluoridation plants in India. International Journal of Water Resources and Arid Environments 2 (3): 139–145.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Takdastan, A., S.E. Tabar, A. Neisi, and A. Eslami. 2014. Fluoride removal from drinking water by electrocoagulation using iron and aluminum electrodes, Jundishapur. Journal of Health Science 6 (3): 39–44.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sandoval, M.A., R. Fuentes, J.L. Nava, and I. Rodríguez. 2014. Fluoride removal from drinking water by electrocoagulation in a continuous filter-press reactor coupled to a flocculation and clarifier. Separation and Purification Technology 134: 163–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Naim, M. M. Moneer, A. A., and El-Said, G. F. 2015. Predictive equations for the defluoridation by electrocoagulation technique using bipolar aluminum electrodes in the absence and presence of additives: A multivariate study. Desalination and Water Treatment, 1–13.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mena-Duran, C.J., M.R. Sun Kou, and T. Lopez. 2007. Nitrate removal using natural clays modified by acid thermoactivation. Applied Surface Science 253 (13): 5762–5766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Murray, H.H. 2000. Traditional and new applications for kaolin, smectite, and palygorskite: A general overview. Applied Clay Science 17 (5–6): 207–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Camazano, M.S., and M.J.S. Martin. 1983. Factors influencing interactions of organophosphorus pesticides with montmorillonite. Geoderma 29 (2): 107–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ainsworth, C.C., J.M. Zachara, and R.L. Schmidt. 1987. Quinoline sorption on Na-montmorillonite: contributions of the protonated and neutral species. Clays and Clay Minerals 35 (2): 121–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Khoshnood, M., and S. Azizian. 2012. Adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid pesticide by graphitic carbon nanostructures prepared from biomasses. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 18 (5): 1796–1800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rodriguez, J.M., A.J. Lopez, and S. Bruque. 1988. Interaction of phenamiphos with montmorillonite. Clays & Clay Minerals 36 (3): 284–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Shu, H.T., D. Li, A.A. Scala, and Y.H. Ma. 1997. Adsorption of small organic pollutants from aqueous streams by aluminosilicate-based microporous materials. Separation and Purification Technology 11 (1): 27–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Torrents, A., and S. Jayasundera. 1997. The sorption of nonionic pesticides onto clays and the influence of natural organic carbon. Chemosphere 35 (7): 1549–1565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Danis, T.G., T.A. Albanis, D.E. Petrakis, and P.J. Pomonis. 1998. Removal of chlorinated phenols from aqueous solutions by adsorption on alumina pillared clays and mesoporous alumina aluminum phosphates. Water Research 32 (2): 295–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Konstantinou, I.K., T.A. Albanis, D.E. Petrakis, and P.J. Pomonis. 2000. Removal of herbicides from aqueous solutions by adsorption on Al-pillared clays, Fe-Al pillared clays, and mesoporous alumina aluminum phosphates. Water Research 34 (12): 3123–3136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sun, D., W. Cai, C. Shi, X. Mu, Y. Song, and H. Qi. 2000. Advanced oxidations of chloroacetic acids present in drinking water. Journal of Environmental Science and Health A 35 (10): 1811–1816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Pervova, M.G., V.E. Kirichenko, and K.I. Pashkevich. 2002. Determination of chloroacetic acids in drinking water by reaction gas chromatography. Journal of Analytical Chemistry 57 (4): 326–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Gu, L., X. Yu, J. Xu, L. Lv, and Q. Wang. 2011. Removal of dichloroacetic acid from drinking water by using adsorptive ozonation. Ecotoxicology 20 (5): 1160–1166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lu, J., and Pan, J. 2010. Removal of carbon tetrachloride from contaminated groundwater environment by adsorption method. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering (iCBBE’10) Chengdu, China.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rivera-Jimenez, S.M., M.M. Lehner, W.A. Cabrera-Lafaurie, and A.J. Hernández-Maldonado. 2011. Removal of naproxen, salicylic acid, clofibric acid, and carbamazepine by water phase adsorption onto inorganic-organic-intercalated bentonites modified with transition metal cations. Environmental Engineering Science 28 (3): 171–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Senturk, H.B., D. Ozdes, A. Gundogdu, C. Duran, and M. Soylak. 2009. Removal of phenol from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto organomodified Tirebolu bentonite: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study. Journal of Hazardous Materials 172 (1): 353–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gu, L., X. Zhang, L. Lei, and X. Liu. 2009. Concurrent removal of humic acid and o-dichlorobenzene in drinking water by combined ozonation and bentonite coagulation process. Water Science and Technology 60 (12): 3061–3068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Jiang, J.Q., and C.G. Kim. 2008. Comparison of algal removal by coagulation with clays and Al-based coagulants. Separation Science and Technology 43 (7): 1677–1686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gao, Z., X. Peng, H. Zhang, Z. Luan, and B. Fan. 2013. Montmorillonite-Cu(II)/Fe(III) oxides magnetic material for removal of cyanobacterial Microcystis aeruginosa and its regeneration. Desalination 247 (1–3): 337–345.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Undabeytia, T., S. Nir, J. Sánchez-Verdejo, J. Villaverde, C. Maqueda, and E. Morillo. 2008. A clay-vesicle system for water purification from organic pollutants. Water Research 42 (4–5): 1211–1219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rytwo, G., Y. Kohavi, I. Botnick, and Y. Gonen. 2007. Use of CVand TPP-montmorillonite for the removal of priority pollutants from water. Applied Clay Science 36 (1–3): 182–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bonina, F.P., M.L. Giannossi, L. Medici, C. Puglia, V. Summa, and F. Tateo. 2007. Adsorption of salicylic acid on bentonite and kaolin and release experiments. Applied Clay Science 36 (1–3): 77–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wang, T., R.L. Zhu, F. Ge, J.X. Zhu, H.P. He, and W.X. Chen. 2010. Sorption of phenol and nitrobenzene in water by CTMAB/CPAM oregano bentonites. Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science 31 (2): 385–389.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Carmichael, W.W. 1988. Freshwater cyanobacteria (blue-green algal) toxins. In Natural toxins: Characterization, pharmacology and therapeutics, edited by C.L. Ownby and G.V. Odell, 3–16. London, UK: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Cohen, P., and P.T.W. Cohen. 1989. Protein phosphatases come of age. Journal of Biological Chemistry 264 (36): 21435–21438.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Yoshizawa, S., R. Matsushima, and M.F. Watanabe. 1990. Inhibition of protein phosphatases by microcystis and nodularin associated with hepatotoxicity. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 116 (6): 609–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Honkanen, R.E., J. Zwiller, and R.E. Moore. 1990. Characterization of microcystin-LR, a potent inhibitor of type 1 and type 2A protein phosphatases. Journal of Biological Chemistry 265 (32): 19401–19404.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    MacKintosh, C., K.A. Beattie, S. Klumpp, P. Cohen, and G.A. Codd. 1990. Cyanobacterial microcystin-LR is a potent and specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A from both mammals and higher plants. FEBS Letters 264 (2): 187–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Nishiwaki-Matsushima, R., S. Nishiwaki, and T. Ohta. 1991. Structure- function relationships of microcystins, liver tumor promoters, in interaction with protein phosphatase. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research 82 (9): 993–996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Nishiwaki-Matsushima, R., T. Ohta, and S. Nishiwaki. 1992. Liver tumor promotion by the cyanobacterial cyclic peptide toxin microcystin-LR. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 118 (6): 420–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Fujiki, H., and M. Suganuma. 1993. Tumor promotion by inhibitors of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A: The okadaic acid class of compounds. Advances in Cancer Research 61: 143–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Lawton, L.A., B.J.P.A. Cornish, and A.W.R. MacDonald. 1998. Removal of cyanobacterial toxins (microcystins) and cyanobacterial cells from drinking water using domestic water filters. Water Research 32 (3): 633–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Heidarpour, F., and Wan. W. 2011. Complete removal of pathogenic bacteria from water using nano silver coate cylindrical polypropylene. Journal of Toxicology—Toxin Reviews 17(3):385–403.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Xagoraraki, I., Yin, Z., and Svambayev, Z. (2014). Fate of viruses in water systems. Journal of Environment Engineering, 140. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000827.
  97. 97.
    Lu, R., D. Mosiman, and T.H. Nguyen. 2013. Mechanisms of MS2 bacteriophage removal by fouled ultrafiltration membrane subjected to different cleaning methods. Environmental Science and Technology 47: 13422–13429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Antony, A., J. Blackbeard, and G. Leslie. 2011. Removal efficiency and integrity monitoring techniques for virus removal by membrane processes. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 42: 891–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hirani, Z.M., Z. Bukhari, J. Oppenheimer, P. Jjemba, M.W. LeChevallier, and J.G. Jacangelo. 2014. Impact of MBR cleaning and breaching on passage of selected microorganisms and subsequent inactivation by free chlorine. Water Research 57: 313–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Cabral, J.P.S. 2010. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 7: 3657–3703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Luo, W., F.I. Hai, W.E. Price, W. Guo, H.H. Ngo, K. Yamamoto, and L.D. Nghiem. 2014. High retention membrane bioreactors: Challenges and opportunities. Bioresources Technology 167: 539–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Amin, M.T., A.A. Alazba, and U. Manzoor. 2014. A review of removal of pollutants from water/wastewater using different types of nanomaterials. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 23 (4): 23–28.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Botes, M., and T. Eugene Cloete. 2010. The potential of nanofibers and nano biocides in water purification. Critical Reviews in Microbiology 36: 68–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Homaeigohar, S., and M. Elbahri. 2014. Nanocomposite electrospun nanofiber membranes for environmental remediation. Materials 7: 1017–1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Semblante, G.U., F.I. Hai, H.H. Ngo, W. Guo, S.J. You, W.E. Price, and L.D. Nghiem. 2014. Sludge cycling between aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic regimes to reduce sludge production during wastewater treatment: Performance, mechanisms, and implications. Bioresource Technology 155: 395–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Formulation, ABH Natures ProductNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.School of Chemical SciencesCentral University of GujaratGandhinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations