Advertisement

Carbon Nanoadsorbents for Removal of Organic Contaminants from Water

  • Fernando Machado MachadoEmail author
  • Éder Cláudio Lima
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series on Polymer and Composite Materials book series (SSPCM)

Abstract

The removal of organic contaminants is of great concern in water treatment. This chapter elucidates the adsorption wastewater treatment processes using carbon nanoadsorbents with adsorbents. It is discussed the characteristics that make such nanostructures extremely interesting for adsorption process. In addition, a discussion of the main kinetics and isotherms models used to obtain information on the mechanisms and dynamics of the process is carried, as well as how these models are used and interpreted. Additionally, this chapter compiles relevant current knowledge about the experimental and theoretical adsorption activities of carbon nanotubes and graphene family as nanoadsorbents for removal of organic environmental pollutants. The accumulated data indicate that carbon nanomaterials can be successfully used for treating organic pollutants wastewater.

Keywords

Adsorption Textural properties Nanomaterials Nonlinear equilibrium and kinetic adsorption models Thermodynamic calculation of entropy and enthalpy changes 

Abbreviations

AC

Activated carbon

BET

Brunauer–Emmett–Teller

CNA

Carbon nanoadsorbents

CNT

Carbon nanotube

DFT

Density Functional Theory

EC

Emerging contaminants

EDC

Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

FLG–Few

Layer Graphene

GNS

Graphene nanosheet

GO

Graphene oxide

GOS

Graphene oxide nanosheet

MB

Methylene Blue

MWCNT

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes

OC

Organic contaminants

Qmax

Maximum adsorption capacity

R

Correlation coefficient

R2

Coefficient of determination

Radj2

Adjusted coefficient of determination

SD

Standard deviation (root of mean square error)

SWCNT

Single-walled carbon nanotubes

rGO

Reduced Graphene Oxide

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge funding from Brazilian agencies CNPq and CAPES.

References

  1. 1.
    Duncan, J., N. Savage, A. Street, and Sustich, R. 2014. Nanotechnology applications for clean water: Solutions for improving water quality. 2nd ed. Norwich, NY: Micro & Nano Technologies, William Andrew Inc.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Petrie, B., R. Ruth, and B. Kasprzyk-Hordern. 2015. A review on emerging contaminants in wastewaters and the environment: Current knowledge, understudied areas and recommendations for future monitoring. Water Research 72: 3–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kümmerer, K. 2008. Pharmaceuticals in the environment: Sources, fate, effects and risks. 3rd ed. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barceló, D. 2012. Emerging organic contaminants and human health. Berlin: Springer. Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bergmann, C.P., and F.M. Machado. 2015. Carbon nanomaterials as adsorbents for environmental and biological applications. New York: Springer International Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dąbrowski, A. 2001. Adsorption—from theory to practice. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 93: 135–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ruthven, D.M. 1984. Principles of adsorption and adsorption processes. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gupta, V.K., and T.A. Saleh. 2013. Sorption of pollutants by porous carbon, carbon nanotubes and fullerene—An overview. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 20: 2828–2843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Reis, G.S., M. Wilhelm, T.C.A. Silva, K. Rezwan, C.H. Sampaio, E.C. Lima, and S.M.A.G.U. de Souza. 2016. The use of design of experiments for the evaluation of the production of surface rich activated carbon from sewage sludge via microwave and conventional pyrolysis. Applied Thermal Engineering 93: 590–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Machado, F.M., C.P. Bergmann, T.H.M. Fernandes, et al. 2011. Adsorption of Reactive Red M-2BE dye from water solutions by multi-walled carbon nanotubes and activated carbon. Journal of Hazardous Materials 192: 1122–1131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Prola, L.D.T., F.M. Machado, C.P. Bergmann, et al. 2013. Adsorption of Direct Blue 53 dye from aqueous solutions by multi-walled carbon nanotubes and activated carbon. Journal of Environmental Management 130: 166–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Patiño, Y., E. Díaz, S. Ordóñez, E. Gallegos-Suarez, A. Guerrero-Ruiz, and I. Rodríguez-Ramos. 2015. Adsorption of emerging pollutants on functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes. Chemosphere 136: 174–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jauris, I.M., C.F. Matos, C. Saucier, et al. 2016. Adsorption of sodium diclofenac on graphene: A combined experimental and theoretical study. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 18: 1526–1536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Machado, F.M., S.A. Carmalin, E.C. Lima, et al. 2016. Adsorption of Alizarin Red S dye by carbon nanotubes: An experimental and theoretical investigation. Journal of Physical Chemistry C 120: 18296–18306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bai, H., X. Zan, L. Zhang, and D.D. Sun. 2015. Multi-functional CNT/ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite membrane for concurrent filtration and photocatalytic degradation. Separation and Purification Technology 156: 922–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kim, J.D., H. Yun, G.C. Kim, C.W. Lee, and H.C. Choi. 2013. Antibacterial activity and reusability of CNT-Ag and GO-Ag nanocomposites. Applied Surface Science 283: 227–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gupta, V.K., S. Agarwal, and T.A. Saleh. 2011. Synthesis and characterization of alumina-coated carbon nanotubes and their application for lead removal. Journal of Hazardous Materials 85 (1): 17–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Guo, J., R. Wang, W.W. Tjiu, J. Pan, and T. Liu. 2012. Synthesis of Fe nanoparticles@graphene composites for environmental applications. Journal of Hazardous Materials 225: 63–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Terrones, M., A.R. Botello-Méndez, J. Campos-Delgado, et al. 2010. Graphene and graphite nanoribbons: Morphology, properties, synthesis, defects and applications. Nano Today 5 (4): 351–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    O’Connell, J.M. 2006. Carbon nanotubes: Properties and applications. LLC, New York: Taylor & Francis Group.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Novoselov, K.S., A.K. Geim, S.V. Morozov, et al. 2004. Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science 306: 666–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Iijima, S. 1991. Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon. Nature 354: 56–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bethune, D.S., C.H. Klang, M.S. De Vries, et al. 2003. Cobalt-catalysed growth of carbon nanotubes with single-atomic-layer walls. Nature 363: 605–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Iijima, S., and T. Ichihashi. 1993. Single-shell carbon nanotubes of 1-nm diameter. Nature 363: 603–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Machado, F.M., C.P. Bergmann, E.C. Lima, et al. 2012. Adsorption of Reactive Blue 4 dye from water solutions by carbon nanotubes: Experiment and theory. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 14: 11139–11153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Babaa, M.R., N. Dupont-Pavlovsky, E. McRae, and K. Masenelli-Varlot. 2004. Physical adsorption of carbon tetrachloride on as-produced and on mechanically opened single walled carbon nanotubes. Carbon 42: 1549–1554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ren, X., C. Chen, M. Nagatsu, and X. Wang. 2011. Carbon nanotubes as adsorbents in environmental pollution management: A review. Chemical Engineering Journal 170: 395–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Upadhyayula, V.K.K., S. Deng, M.C. Mitchell, and G.B. Smith. 2009. Application of carbon nanotube technology for removal of contaminants in drinking water: A review. Science of the Total Environment 408: 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sze, M.F.F., V.K.C. Lee, and G. McKay. 2008. Simplified fixed bed column model for adsorption of organic pollutants using tapered activated carbon columns. Desalination 218: 323–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yuan, W., B. Li, and L. Li. 2011. A green synthetic approach to graphene nanosheets for hydrogen adsorption. Applied Surface Science 257: 10183–10187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Negishi, R., H. Hirano, Y. Ohno, K. Maehashi, K. Matsumoto, and Y. Kobayashi. 2011. Layer-by-layer growth of graphene layers on graphene substrates by chemical vapor deposition. Thin Solid Films 519: 6447–6452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Brodie, B.C. 1859. On the atomic weight of graphite. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A 149: 249–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Staudenmaier, L. 1898. Verfahren zur darstellung der graphitsaure. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft 31: 1481–1487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hummers, W.S., and R.E. Offeman. 1958. Preparation of graphitic oxide. Journal of the American Chemical Society 80: 1339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bianco, A., H.-M. Cheng, T. Enoki, et al. 2013. All in the graphene family—A recommended nomenclature for two-dimensional carbon materials. Carbon 65: 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hernandez, Y., V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, et al. 2008. High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite. Nature Nanotechnology 3: 563–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sun, Y., Q. Wu, and G. Shi. 2011. Graphene based new energy materials. Energy & Environmental Science 4: 1113–1132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Stankovich, S., D.A. Dikin, G.H.B. Dommett, et al. 2006. Graphene-based composite materials. Nature 442: 282–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Xiao, J., W. Lv, Z. Xie, Y. Tan, Y. Song, and Q. Zheng. 2016. Environmentally friendly reduced graphene oxide as a broad-spectrum adsorbent for anionic and cationic dyes via π–π interactions. J Mater Chem A 4: 12126–12135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kim, H., S.-O. Kang, S. Park, and H.S. Park. 2015. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics of cationic and anionic dyes on three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide macrostructure. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 21: 1191–1196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tsoufis, T., G. Tuci, S. Caporali, D. Gournis, and G. Giambastiani. 2013. p-Xylylenediamine intercalation of graphene oxide for the production of stitched nanostructures with a tailored interlayer spacing. Carbon 59: 100–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Li, Y., Q. Du, J. Wang, et al. 2013. Defluoridation from aqueous solution by manganese oxide coated graphene oxide. Journal of Fluorine Chemistry 148: 67–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lee, Y.-C., S.-J. Chang, M.-H. Choi, T.-J. Jeon, T. Ryu, and Y.S. Huh. 2013. Self-assembled graphene oxide with organo-building blocks of Fe-aminoclay for heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction at near-neutral pH: A batch experiment. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 142–143: 494–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sharma, P., and M.R. Das. 2013. Removal of a cationic dye from aqueous solution using graphene oxide nanosheets: Investigation of adsorption parameters. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data 58: 151–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mishra, A.K., and S. Ramaprabhu. 2011. Removal of metals from aqueous solution and sea water by functionalized graphite nanoplatelets based electrodes. Journal of Hazardous Materials 185: 322–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ren, X., J. Li, X. Tan, and X. Wang. 2013. Comparative study of graphene oxide, activated carbon and carbon nanotubes as adsorbents for copper decontamination. Dalton Transactions 42: 5266–5274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lingamdinne, L.P., J.R. Koduru, H. Roh, Y.-L. Choi, Y.-Y. Chang, and J.-K. Yang. 2016. Adsorption removal of Co(II) from waste-water using graphene oxide. Hydrometallurgy 165: 90–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yang, S.-T., S. Chen, Y. Chang, A. Cao, Y. Liu, and H. Wang. 2011. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by graphene oxide. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 359: 24–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Xu, J., and Y.-F. Zhu. 2013. Elimination of Bisphenol A from water via graphene oxide adsorption. Acta Physico-Chimica Sinica 29: 829–836.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gao, Y., L. Zhang, H. Huang, J. Hu, S. Shah, and X. Su. 2012. Adsorption and removal of tetracycline antibiotics from aqueous solution by graphene oxide. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 368: 540–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nam, S.-W., C. Jung, H. Li, et al. 2015. Adsorption characteristics of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole to graphene oxide in aqueous solution. Chemosphere 136: 20–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pei, S., and H.M. Cheng. 2012. The reduction of graphene oxide. Carbon 50: 3210–3228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Park, S., J. An, J.R. Potts, A. Velamakanni, S. Murali, and R.S. Ruoff. 2011. Hydrazine-reduction of graphite and graphene oxide. Carbon 49: 3019–3023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bai, Y., R.B. Rakhi, W. Chen, and H.N. Alshareef. 2013. Effect of pH-induced chemical modification of hydrothermally reduced graphene oxide on supercapacitor performance. Journal of Power Sources 233: 313–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Song, S., H. Yang, C. Su, Z. Jiang, and Z. Lu. 2016. Ultrasonic-microwave assisted synthesis of stable reduced graphene oxide modified melamine foam with superhydrophobicity and high oil adsorption capacities. Chemical Engineering Journal 306: 504–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Fei, P., Q. Wang, M. Zhong, and B. Su. 2016. Preparation and adsorption properties of enhanced magnetic zinc ferrite-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites via a facile one-pot solvothermal method. Journal of Alloys and Compounds 685: 411–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Liu, F.-F., J. Zhao, S. Wang, and B. Xing. 2016. Adsorption of sulfonamides on reduced graphene oxides as affected by pH and dissolved organic matter. Environmental Pollution 210: 85–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bi, H., X. Xie, K. Yin, et al. 2012. Spongy graphene as a highly efficient and recyclable sorbent for oils and organic solvents. Advanced Functional Materials 22: 4421–4425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kwon, J., and B. Lee. 2015. Bisphenol A adsorption using reduced graphene oxide prepared by physical and chemical reduction methods. Chemical Engineering Research and Design 104: 519–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wang, J., and B. Chen. 2015. Adsorption and coadsorption of organic pollutants and a heavy metal by graphene oxide and reduced graphene materials. Chemical Engineering Journal 281: 379–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bai, S., X. Shen, G. Zhu, et al. 2013. The influence of wrinkling in reduced graphene oxide on their adsorption and catalytic properties. Carbon 60: 157–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Largegren, S. 1898. About the theory of so-called adsorption of soluble substances. Kungliga Suensk Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar 24: 1–39.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ho, Y.S. 2006. Review of second-order models for adsorption systems. Journal of Hazardous Materials 136: 681–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Alencar, W.S., E.C. Lima, B. Royer, et al. 2012. Application of aqai stalks as biosorbents for the removal of the dye Procion Blue MX-R from aqueous solution. Separation Science and Technology 47: 513–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lopes, E.C.N., F.S.C. dos Anjos, E.F.S. Vieira, and A.R. Cestari. 2003. An alternative Avrami equation to evaluate kinetic parameters of the interaction of Hg(II) with thin chitosan membranes. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 263: 542–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Vaghetti, J.C.P., E.C. Lima, B. Royer, et al. 2009. Pecan nutshell as biosorbent to remove Cu(II), Mn(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. Journal of Hazardous Materials 162: 270–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Langmuir, I. 1918. The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum. Journal of the American Chemical Society 40: 1361–1403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Freundlich, H. 1906. Adsorption in solution. Physical Chemistry Society 40: 1361–1368.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sips, R. 1948. On the structure of a catalyst surface. The Journal of Chemical Physics 16: 490–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Liu, Y., H. Xu, S.F. Yang, and J.H. Tay. 2003. A general model for biosorption of Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ by aerobic granules. Journal of Biotechnology 102: 233–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Redlich, O., and D.L. Peterson. 1959. A useful adsorption isotherm. Journal of Physical Chemistry 63: 1024–1027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lima, E.C., M.A. Adebayo, and F.M. Machado. 2015. Chapter 3—Kinetic and equilibrium models of adsorption. In Carbon nanomaterials as adsorbents for environmental and biological applications, ed. C.P. Bergmann, and F.M. Machado, 33–69. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Levenspiel, O. 1999. Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3rd ed, 1999. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ribas, M.C., M.A. Adebayo, L.D.T. Prola, et al. 2014. Comparison of a homemade cocoa shell activated carbon with commercial activated carbon for the removal of reactive violet 5 dye from aqueous solutions. Chemical Engineering Journal 248: 315–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Vaghetti, J.C.P., E.C. Lima, B. Royer, et al. 2008. Application of Brazilian-pine fruit coat as a biosorbent to removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. Kinetics and equilibrium study. Biochemical Engineering Journal 42: 67–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lima, E.C., A.R. Cestari, and M.A. Adebayo. 2016. Comments on the paper: A critical review of the applicability of Avrami fractional kinetic equation in adsorption-based water treatment studies. Desalination and Water Treatment 57: 19566–19571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Thue, P.S., E.C. Lima, J.M. Sieliechi, et al. 2017. Effects of first–row transition metals and impregnation ratios on the physicochemical properties of microwave-assisted activated carbons from wood biomass. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 486: 163–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Rajabia, M., B. Mirzab, K. Mahanpoorc, et al. 2016. Adsorption of malachite green from aqueous solution by carboxylate group functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes: Determination of equilibrium and kinetics parameters. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 34: 130–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Robati, D., B. Mirza, R. Ghazisaeidi, et al. 2016. Adsorption behavior of methylene blue dye on nanocomposite multi-walled carbon nanotube functionalized thiol (MWCNT-SH) as new adsorbent. Journal of Molecular Liquids 216: 830–835.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Jauris, I.M., S.B. Fagan, M.A. Adebayo, and F.M. Machado. 2016. Adsorption of acridine orange and methylene blue synthetic dyes and anthracene on single wall carbon nanotubes: A first principle approach. Computational and Theoretical Chemistry 1076: 42–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Chowdhury, S., and R. Balasubramanian. 2014. Recent advances in the use of graphene-family nanoadsorbents for removal of toxic pollutants from wastewater. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 204: 35–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Peng, W., H. Li, Y. Liu, and S. Song. 2016. Adsorption of methylene blue on graphene oxide prepared from amorphous graphite: Effects of pH and foreign ions. Journal of Molecular Liquids 221: 82–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Yan, H., X. Tao, Z. Yang, et al. 2014. Effects of the oxidation degree of graphene oxide on the adsorption of methylene blue. Journal of Hazardous Materials 268: 191–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Padhia, D.K., K.M. Parida, and S.K. Singh. 2016. Mechanistic aspects of enhanced congo red adsorption over graphene oxide in presence of methylene blue. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 4: 3498–3511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Robati, D., M. Rajabi, O. Moradi, et al. 2016. Kinetics and thermodynamics of malachite green dye adsorption from aqueous solutions on graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide. Journal of Molecular Liquids 214: 259–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hu, X., and Z. Cheng. 2015. Removal of diclofenac from aqueous solution with multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified by nitric acid. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering 23: 1551–1556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Yang, X., R.C. Flowers, H.S. Weinberg, and P.C. Singer. 2011. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in an advanced wastewater reclamation plant. Water Research 45 (16): 5218–5228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kim, H., Y.S. Hwang, and V.K. Sharma. 2014. Adsorption of antibiotics and iopromide onto single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Chemical Engineering Journal 255: 23–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ding, H., X. Li, J. Wang, X. Zhang, and C. Chen. 2016. Adsorption of chlorophenols from aqueous solutions by pristine and surface functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes. Journal of Environmental Sciences 43: 187–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Joseph, L., Q. Zaib, I.A. Khan, et al. 2011. Removal of bisphenol A and 17 α-ethinyl estradiol from landfill leachate using single-walled carbon nanotubes. Water Research 45: 4056–4068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Chen, H., B. Gao, and H. Li. 2015. Removal of sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin from aqueous solutions by graphene oxide. Journal of Hazardous Materials 282: 201–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Rostamian, R., and H. Behnejad. 2016. A comparative adsorption study of sulfamethoxazole onto graphene and graphene oxide nanosheets through equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic modeling. Process Safety and Environmental Protection 102: 20–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Dong, S., Y. Sun, J. Wu, B. Wu, A.E. Creamer, and B. Gao. 2016. Graphene oxide as filter media to remove levofloxacin and lead from aqueous solution. Chemosphere 150: 759–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Bele, S., V. Victoria Samanidou, and E. Deliyanni. 2016. Effect of the reduction degree of graphene oxide on the adsorption of Bisphenol A. Chemical Engineering Research and Design 109: 573–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernando Machado Machado
    • 1
    Email author
  • Éder Cláudio Lima
    • 2
  1. 1.Centro de Desenvolvimento TecnológicoUniversidade Federal de PelotasPelotasBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto de QuímicaUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil

Personalised recommendations