Direct and Indirect Reduction: Definitions, Indications, and Tips and Tricks

  • Stuart Aitken
  • Richard BuckleyEmail author


Fracture reduction can be defined as the restoration of the correct anatomical position of fracture fragments and is a reversal of the process of fracture displacement which occurred at the time of injury. It includes the elevation of impacted cancellous bone and articular fragments in fractures with intra-articular involvement. In extra-articular fractures, reduction includes the restoration of limb length, alignment, and rotation so that the joints above and below the fracture are placed in the correct position. Fracture reduction can be thought of as the recreation of the normal three-dimensional spatial relationship of fracture fragments relative to one another. In clinical practice, this process can be achieved by direct or indirect means and often by a combination of both techniques.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Department of OrthopaedicsMaineGeneral Medical CenterAugustaUnited States

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