Distal Radius Fracture

  • Georg GradlEmail author


Fractures of the distal forearm have an incidence of 37 out of 10,000 females and 9 out of 100,000 males and are among the most frequent fractures of the adult population above the age of 35 years. In younger adults below the age of 39 years, high-energy trauma is more frequent, leading to a higher percentage of additional carpal ligamentous injuries. In this chapter reduction and fixation techniques of distal radius fractures will be discussed.


  1. 1.
    O'Neill TW, Cooper C, Finn JD, Lunt M, Purdie D, Reid DM, Rowe R, Woolf AD, Wallace WA, Colles UK. Fracture Study Group. Incidence of distal forearm fracture in British men and women. Osteoporos Int. 2001;12:555–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thompson PW, Taylor J, Dawson A. The annual incidence and seasonal variation of fractures of the distal radius in men and women over 25 years in Dorset, UK. Injury. 2004;35:462–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pechlaner S, Gabl M, Lutz M, Krappinger D, Leixnering M, Krulis B, Ulmer H, Rudisch A, Arbeitsgruppe A. Distal radius fractures—aetiology, treatment and outcome. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir. 2007;39:19–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Müller ME, Nazarian S, Koch P, Schatzker J. The comprehensive classification of fractures of long bones. New York: Springer; 1990. p. 106–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cuenca J, Martínez AA, Herrera A, Domingo J. The incidence of distal forearm fractures in Zaragoza (Spain). Chir Main. 2003;22:211–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vogt MT, Cauley JA, Tomaino MM, Stone K, Williams JR, Herndon JH. Distal radius fractures in older women: a 10-years follow-up study of descriptive characteristics and risk factors. The study of osteoporotic fractures. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002;50:97–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hollevoet N, Van Maele G, Van Seymortier P, Verdonk R. Comparison of palmar tilt, radial inclination and ulnar variance in left and right wrists. J Hand Surg Br. 2000;25:431–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lundy DW, Quisling SG, Lourie GM, Feiner CM, Lins RE. Tilted lateral radiographs in the evaluation of intra-articular distal radius fractures. J Hand Surg [Am]. 1999;24:249–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Medoff RJ. Essential radiographic evaluation for distal radius fractures. Hand Clin. 2005;21:279–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arora R, Lutz M, Hennerbichler A, Krappinger D, Espen D, Gabl M. Complications following internal fixation of unstable distal radius fracture with a palmar locking-plate. J Orthop Trauma. 2007;21:316–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Burkhart KJ, Nowak TE, Gradl G, Klitscher D, Mehling I, Mehler D, Mueller LP, Rommens PM. Intramedullary nailing vs. palmar locked plating for unstable dorsally comminuted distal radius fractures: a biomechanical study. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2010;25(8):771–5. Epub 7 Jul 2010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gradl G, Falk S, Mittlmeier T, Wendt M, Mielsch N, Gradl G. Fixation of intra-articular fractures of the distal radius using intramedullary nailing: a randomized trial versus palmar locking plates. Injury. 2016;47(Suppl 7):S25–30. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Falk SS, Mittlmeier T, Gradl G. Results of geriatric distal radius fractures treated by intramedullary fixation. Injury. 2016;47(Suppl 7):S31–5. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gradl G. Distal radius fractures. Z Orthop Unfall. 2009;147(5):621–35. quiz 636-7. Epub 5 Oct 2009. German. No abstract availableCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Windolf M, Schwieger K, Ockert B, Jupiter JB, Gradl G. A novel non-bridging external fixator construct versus volar angular stable plating for the fixation of intra-articular fractures of the distal radius—a biomechanical study. Injury. 2010;41(2):204–9. Epub 9 Oct 2009CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gradl G, Jupiter JB, Gierer P, Mittlmeier T. Fractures of the distal radius treated with a nonbridging external fixation technique using multiplanar k-wires. J Hand Surg [Am]. 2005;30(5):960–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gradl G, Gradl G, Wendt M, Mittlmeier T, Kundt G, Jupiter JB. Non-bridging external fixation employing multiplanar K-wires versus volar locked plating for dorsally displaced fractures of the distal radius. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2013;133(5):595–602. . Epub 2013 Feb 19.
  18. 18.
    Gradl G, Mielsch N, Wendt M, Falk S, Mittlmeier T, Gierer P, Gradl G. Intramedullary nail versus volar plate fixation of extra-articular distal radius fractures. Two year results of a prospective randomized trial. Injury. 2014;45(Suppl 1):S3–8. Epub 4 Nov 2013CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gradl G, Neuhaus V, Fuchsberger T, Guitton TG, Prommersberger KJ, Ring D. Science of Variation Group. Radiographic diagnosis of scapholunate dissociation among intra-articular fractures of the distal radius: interobserver reliability. J Hand Surg [Am]. 2013;38(9):1685–90. Epub 30 Jul 2013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gradl G, Pillukat T, Fuchsberger T, Knobe M, Ring D, Prommersberger KJ. The functional outcome of acute scapholunate ligament repair in patients with intraarticular distal radius fractures treated by internal fixation. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2013;133(9):1281–7. Epub 23 Jun 2013CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinic for Trauma, Orthopedic Surgery, Hand- and Reconstructive Surgery, Spine SurgeryMunich Municipal Hospital Group, Clinic HarlachingMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations