Pulmonary Endothelial Cell Apoptosis in Emphysema and Acute Lung Injury

Part of the Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology book series (ADVSANAT, volume 228)


Apoptosis plays an essential role in homeostasis and pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Endothelial cells are exposed to various environmental and internal stress and endothelial apoptosis is a pathophysiological consequence of these stimuli. Pulmonary endothelial cell apoptosis initiates or contributes to progression of a number of lung diseases. This chapter will focus on the current understanding of the role of pulmonary endothelial cell apoptosis in the development of emphysema and acute lung injury (ALI) and the factors controlling pulmonary endothelial life and death.


Pulmonary Endothelial cells Apoptosis Necrosis Necroptosis ER stress Unfolded protein response Autophagy Emphysema Acute lung injury ARDS COPD 

List of Abbreviations




Adenosine deaminase




Activated protein C


Acute respiratory distress syndrome


Adenosine receptors


Transcription factor 6


Autophagy-related genes




Broncheoalveolar lavage fluid






C/EBP homologous protein


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


Cigarette smoke


Cigarette smoke extract


Damage associated molecular patterns


Endothelial cells


Extracellular matrix


Eukaryotic initiation factor 2α


Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1/2


Endoplasmic reticulum


Focal adhesion complexes


Focal adhesion kinase




Isoprenylcysteine-O-carboxyl methyltransferase


Interleukin (IL)-1 receptor associated kinase


Inositol-requiring enzyme 1


c-Jun N-terminal kinase




Mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein


Mammalian target of rapamycin


Myeloid differentiation factor 88


Pancreatic ER kinase like ER kinase


Red blood cells


Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 and 3


Reactive oxygen species


Sphingosine 1-phosphate




S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase




Toll-like receptors


Tumor necrosis factor-alpha


TNF receptor associated factor-6


Unfolded protein response


Vascular endothelial growth factor


VEGF receptor type 2



This work was supported with the use of facilities at the Providence VA Medical Center and by an Institutional Development Award (IDeA) from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under grant number P20GM103652 (Lu, project 1), P20GM103652 (Rounds), VA Merit Review (Rounds), NIH Ro1 HL130230 (Lu).


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MedicineAlpert Medical School of Brown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  2. 2.Vascular Research LaboratoryProvidence Veterans Affairs Medical CenterProvidenceUSA

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