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Pulmonary Endothelial Cell Apoptosis in Emphysema and Acute Lung Injury

  • Eboni Chambers
  • Sharon Rounds
  • Qing LuEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology book series (ADVSANAT, volume 228)

Abstract

Apoptosis plays an essential role in homeostasis and pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Endothelial cells are exposed to various environmental and internal stress and endothelial apoptosis is a pathophysiological consequence of these stimuli. Pulmonary endothelial cell apoptosis initiates or contributes to progression of a number of lung diseases. This chapter will focus on the current understanding of the role of pulmonary endothelial cell apoptosis in the development of emphysema and acute lung injury (ALI) and the factors controlling pulmonary endothelial life and death.

Keywords

Pulmonary Endothelial cells Apoptosis Necrosis Necroptosis ER stress Unfolded protein response Autophagy Emphysema Acute lung injury ARDS COPD 

List of Abbreviations

AAT

Alpha1-anti-trypsin

ADA

Adenosine deaminase

ADP

Adenosine-5′-diphosphate

APC

Activated protein C

ARDS

Acute respiratory distress syndrome

ARs

Adenosine receptors

ATF6

Transcription factor 6

ATGs

Autophagy-related genes

ATP

Adenosine-5′-triphosphate

BALF

Broncheoalveolar lavage fluid

CD39

ecto-5′-nucleotidase

CD73

ecto-5′-nucleotidase

CHOP

C/EBP homologous protein

COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

CS

Cigarette smoke

CSE

Cigarette smoke extract

DAMPs

Damage associated molecular patterns

EC

Endothelial cells

ECM

Extracellular matrix

eIF2α

Eukaryotic initiation factor 2α

ENT1/2

Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1/2

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

FAC

Focal adhesion complexes

FAK

Focal adhesion kinase

GSH

Glutathione

ICMT

Isoprenylcysteine-O-carboxyl methyltransferase

IRAK-1

Interleukin (IL)-1 receptor associated kinase

IRE1

Inositol-requiring enzyme 1

JNK

c-Jun N-terminal kinase

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

MLKL

Mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein

mTOR

Mammalian target of rapamycin

MyD88

Myeloid differentiation factor 88

PERK

Pancreatic ER kinase like ER kinase

RBC

Red blood cells

RIPK1/3

Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 and 3

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

S1P

Sphingosine 1-phosphate

SAH

S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine

SAHH

S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase

SAM

S-Adenosyl-l-Methionine

TLRs

Toll-like receptors

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha

TRAF-6

TNF receptor associated factor-6

UPR

Unfolded protein response

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

VEGFR2

VEGF receptor type 2

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported with the use of facilities at the Providence VA Medical Center and by an Institutional Development Award (IDeA) from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under grant number P20GM103652 (Lu, project 1), P20GM103652 (Rounds), VA Merit Review (Rounds), NIH Ro1 HL130230 (Lu).

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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MedicineAlpert Medical School of Brown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  2. 2.Vascular Research LaboratoryProvidence Veterans Affairs Medical CenterProvidenceUSA

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