Concepts of Probability and Principles of Sampling

  • International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF)


Management of food safety using the approaches outlined in the first five chapters, based on controlling hazards through Good Hygienic Practices (GHP) and the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) strategy, is much more effective than trying to ensure safety through end-product testing. Nonetheless, end-product testing is useful to verify that the food safety management system is working effectively or to indicate when the status of a lot is in doubt. This chapter discusses the concepts of probability and sampling that, on the one hand, show the practical limitations of end-product testing and, on the other hand, form the basis of the rational design of statistically-based sampling plans (see Chap.  7), including ICMSF’s 15 cases (see Chap.  8).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF)
    • 1
  1. 1.Robert L. Buchanan, editorial committee chairRiverside Corporate Park CSIRONorth RydeAustralia

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