Advertisement

Statistical Process Control

  • International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF)
Chapter

Abstract

Food operations must be controlled to produce foods of consistent quality and safety. A controlled process requires process managers being proactive and informed of the factors that influence variability. Process control thinking and technology can be applied to the manufacture of a single lot of food produced on 1 day, or multiple lots produced over days or years, and to both batch and continuous processes. This chapter discusses sampling and testing to assess whether food process operations are under control (i.e., correct procedures are being followed and production/manufacturing conditions are being met) and using the data to make the adjustments necessary to maintain control through the use of statistical process control (SPC) methods. Results collected from using industrial process control technology systems can be analyzed through using SPC techniques to assist with process assessment.

References

  1. AOAC International. (2006) Best practices for microbiological methodology, US FDA Contract #223-01-2464, Modification #12, Task force report.Google Scholar
  2. ASTM. (1951). Manual on quality control of materials (p. 2). Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ASTM. (1990). Manual on presentation of data and control chart analysis (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Committee E-11 on Quality and Statistics, American Society for Testing and Materials.Google Scholar
  4. Augustin, J.-C., & Minvielle, B. (2008). Design of control charts to monitor the microbiological contamination of pork meats. Food Control, 19, 82–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Buchanan, R. L. (2000). Acquisition of microbiological data to enhance food safety. Journal of Food Protection, 63, 832–838.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Buchanan, R. L., & Schaffner, D. (2015). FSMA: Testing as a tool for verifying preventative controls. Food Protection Trends, 35(3), 228–237.Google Scholar
  7. CAC (Codex Alimentarius Commission), (1997). Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, Codex Committee on Food Hygiene. Food Hygiene, Supplement to Volume 1B-1997. Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system and guidelines for its application. Annex to CAC/RCP 1–1969, Rev.3.Google Scholar
  8. DeVor, R. E., Chang, T.-H., & Sutherland, J. W. (1992). Statistical quality control and design. Contemporary concepts and methods. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  9. Duncan, A. J. (1986). Quality control and industrial statistics (5th ed.). Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  10. FSIS (USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service). (1996). Pathogen reduction; hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems; final rule. Federal Register, 61, 38806–38989.Google Scholar
  11. Grant, E. L., & Leavenworth, R. S. (1972). Statistical quality control (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  12. Hayes, G. D., Scallan, A. J., & Wong, J. H. F. (1997). Applying statistical process control to monitor and evaluate the hazard analysis and critical control point hygiene data. Food Control, 8, 173–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hubbard, M. R. (2003). Statistical quality control for the food industry (3rd ed.). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. ICMSF (International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods). (1986). Microorganisms in foods 2: Sampling for microbiological analysis: Principles and specific applications (2nd ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN: 0802056938.Google Scholar
  15. ICMSF (International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods). (1988). Microorganisms in foods 4. Application of the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system to ensure microbiological safety and quality. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
  16. ICMSF (International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods). (2011). Microorganisms in foods 8: Use of data for assessing process control and product acceptance. New York: Springer. ISBN 978-1-4419-9373-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Juran, J. M., & Gryna, F. M. (1988). Juran’s quality control handbook (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.Google Scholar
  18. Kramer, A., & Twigg, B. A. (1982). Quality control for the food industry (3rd ed.). Westport: AVI Publishing.Google Scholar
  19. Levinson, W. A. (2011). Statistical process control for real-world applications. Boga Raton: Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.Google Scholar
  20. Lim, S. A. H., Antony, J., & Albliwi, S. (2014). Statistical process control (SPC) in the food industry – A systematic review and future research agenda. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 37, 137–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Massart, D. L., Dijkstra, A., & Kaufman, L. (1978). Evaluation and optimization of laboratory methods and analytical procedures (Vol. 1). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  22. McNamara, A. M. (1995). Establishment of baseline data on the microbiota of meats. J Food Safety, 15, 113–119.Google Scholar
  23. Montgomery, D. (2009). Introduction to statistical quality control (6th ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  24. NACMCF (National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods). (1997). Hazard analysis and critical control points and application guidelines. Journal of Food Protection, 61, 762–775.Google Scholar
  25. NRC (National Research Council). (1985). An evaluation of the role of microbiological criteria for foods and food ingredient. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  26. Nussinovitch, A., Currasso, Y., & Peleg, M. (2000). Analysis of the fluctuating microbial counts in commercial raw milk – A case study. Journal of Food Protection, 63, 1240–1247.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Peleg, M., Nussinovitch, A., & Horowitz, J. (2000). Interpretation of and extraction of useful information from irregular fluctuating industrial microbial counts. Journal of Food Science, 65, 740–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pyzdek, T. (Ed.). (1989). What every engineer should know about quality control (1st ed.). New York: Marcell-Dekker.Google Scholar
  29. Ryan, T. P. (1989). Statistical methods for quality improvement. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  30. Sen, P. K., & Singer, J. M. (1993). Large sample methods in statistics. Chapman & Hall, Inc.Google Scholar
  31. Steiner, E. H. (1984). Statistical methods of quality control. In S. M. Herschdoerfer (Ed.), Quality control in the food industry (Vol. 1, 2nd ed., pp. 169–298). London: Academic.Google Scholar
  32. Wheeler, D. J. (2010). Understanding statistical process control (3rd ed.). Knoxville: SPC Press.Google Scholar
  33. Wise, S. A., & Fair, D. C. (1997). Innovative control charting. Milwaukee: American Society for Quality.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF)
    • 1
  1. 1.Robert L. Buchanan, editorial committee chairRiverside Corporate Park CSIRONorth RydeAustralia

Personalised recommendations