Drivers, Apparatus, and Implications of India’s Renewable Energy Ambitions
India’s renewable energy growth has been historically driven by a domestic political economy centered around finding an appropriate and cost-effective balance between different energy sources and various categories of energy consumers. While the contestations between different interests at the domestic level will continue—and even grow to an extent—the international political economy of energy, in general, and renewable energy, in particular, will assume greater significance in the near to medium term. In the long run, a new equilibrium might emerge in India’s energy sector but at this stage, it would be foolhardy to attempt any deterministic forecasts in that regard. As India becomes the largest and one of the most dynamic market places for renewable energy in the world, it will need to remember the drivers of the market—energy access, job creation, climate change, and energy security. The success of the sector will hinge on the ability of renewable energy to respond to each of these drivers. Equally, the complex policy and regulatory apparatus promoting, monitoring, and adjudicating the advances of the renewable energy sector has played, and will continue to play, an integral role in determining the pace and form of India’s renewable energy deployment. There is growing focus and impact of renewable energy deployment and ambition on India’s domestic and foreign policy. These implications range from energy security, climate leadership, and bilateral, multilateral, and plurilateral energy cooperation.
KeywordsRenewable energy Policy and economy Energy planning Foreign policy Market drivers
- Bery, S., et al. (2017). Energizing India: Towards a resilient and equitable energy system. New Delhi: SAGE.Google Scholar
- British Petroleum. (2015). Statistical review of world energy 2015. http://biomasspower.gov.in/document/Reports/BP%20statistical%20review-2015.pdf. Accessed 3 July 2017.
- Chawla, K., & Ghosh, A. (2016). ISA Roadmap. Working Document, April 2016.Google Scholar
- Choudhary, S. (2015). New Delhi to seek revival of Iran-Pak-India gas pipeline. Economic Times. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/energy/oil-gas/new-delhi-to-seek-revival-of-iran-pak-india-gas-pipeline/articleshow/48244960.cms. Accessed 3 July 2017.
- Deccan Chronicle. (2016). Amend Uday, Jayalalithaa tells Piyush Goyal. Nation, Current Affairs. http://www.deccanchronicle.com/nation/current-affairs/160716/amend-uday-jayalalithaa-tells-piyush-goyal.html. Accessed 3 July 2017.
- Ganesan, K., et al. (2014a). Agenda for a reformed power sector in India. CEEW. http://ceew.in/pdf/ceew-agenda-for-a-reformed-power-sector-in-india-9jan15.pdf. Accessed 3 July 2017.
- Ganesan, K., et al. (2014b). Assessing green industrial policy: The India experience. Global Studies Initiative. https://www.iisd.org/gsi/sites/default/files/rens_gip_india.pdf. Accessed 3 July 2017.
- Ghosh, A. (2006). Pathways through financial crisis: India. Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, 12(4), 413–429.Google Scholar
- Ghosh, A. (2015). Build capacity for energy diplomacy. Business Standard. http://www.business-standard.com/article/opinion/arunabha-ghosh-build-capacity-for-energy-diplomacy-115042001189_1.html. Accessed 3 July 2017.
- Ghosh, A., & Chawla, K. (2015). Decoding India’s climate contributions. CEEW. http://ceew.in/blog/?tag=indc. Accessed 3 July 2017.
- International Energy Agency (IEA). (2015). India energy outlook 2015. World energy outlook special section. https://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/india-energy-outlook-2015.html. Accessed 3 July 2017.
- International Solar Alliance (ISA). n.d. www.intsolaralliance.org. Accessed 3 July 2017.
- King, D., et al. (2015). Climate change: A risk assessment. UKFCO. http://www.csap.cam.ac.uk/media/uploads/files/1/climate-change–a-risk-assessment-v11.pdf. Accessed 3 July 2017.
- Kuldeep, N., et al. (2017). Greening India’s workforce. CEEW. http://ceew.in/pdf/CEEW%20NRDC%20-%20Greening%20India’s%20Workforce%20report%2020Jun17.pdf. Accessed 3 July 2017.
- Ministry of Finance. (2016). Chapter 11: Powering “One India.” http://indiabudget.nic.in/budget2016-2017/es2015-16/echapvol1-11.pdf. Accessed 3 July 2017.
- Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas. (2014). Indian petroleum and natural gas statistics (2013–2014). India Environmental Portal. http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/file/pngstat%202013-14.pdf. Accessed 3 July 2017.
- Ministry of Power. (2016). Draft national electricity plan. Central Electricity Authority. http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/committee/nep/nep_dec.pdf. Accessed 3 July 2017.
- Ministry of Power. (2017). Sikkim becomes 22nd State to join UDAY. Press Release. http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=158654. Accessed 3 July 2017.
- Munsen, M. (2013). Coal to oil and the great green fleet. CIMSEC. http://cimsec.org/coal-to-oil-and-the-great-green-fleet/5145. Accessed 3 July 2017.
- Niti Ayog. (2016). Report of the expert group on 175 GW renewable energy by 2022. Niti Ayog Archives. http://niti.gov.in/writereaddata/files/writereaddata/files/document_publication/report-175-GW-RE.pdf. Accessed 3 July 2017.
- Patel, D. (2017). Solar cells & modules: China firms’ plan to make in India drags, but exports rise. The Indian Express. http://www.google.com/url?q=http%3A%2F%2Findianexpress.com%2Farticle%2Fbusiness%2Feconomy%2Fsolar-cells-modules-china-firms-plan-to-make-in-india-drags-but-exports-rise-4756982%2F&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AFQjCNFY6nGqSwOknc_OlTazvcqnPNwusg. Accessed 19 September 2017.Google Scholar
- Press Information Bureau (PIB). (2017). Shri R K Singh takes over as new Power & New Renewable Energy Minister. Government of India. http://pib.nic.in/newsite/pmreleases.aspx?mincode=28. Accessed 5 September 2017.
- Sengupta, D. (2016). Thermal power plants’ capacity utilization to drop to 48% by 2022. Economic Times. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/energy/power/thermal-power-plants-capacity-utilisation-to-drop-to-48-by-2022/articleshow/56073709.cms. Accessed 3 July 2017.
- Tongia, R. (2016). India’s updated (2016) renewable energy “guidelines”: Bold targets, but can we meet them? Brookings India Impact Series. https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/201608_RPOs-for-India_RT.pdf. Accessed 3 July 2017.
- Verisk Maplecroft Risk Calculators and Dashboards. (2011). Climate Change Vulnerability Map. https://maplecroft.com/about/news/ccvi.html. Accessed 3 July 2017.
- World Bank International Comparison Program Database. (2016). GDP per capita, PPP (current international $). http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.PP.CD. Accessed 3 July 2017.