Conclusion and Outlook

  • Ka-Meng Lei
  • Pui-In Mak
  • Man-Kay Law
  • Rui Paulo Martins


In retrospect, this book firstly reviewed recent CMOS biosensors for in vitro diagnosis according to their transducing mechanisms (Chap.  2). Among these, NMR-based detection is a promising transducing mechanism as it averts complex post-processing on the CMOS chip and surface modification process to immobilize the probe. Still, there exist some challenges such as magnetic field instability and arduous sample management inside the space-limiting magnet. Thus, the essences of the researches around this book are to implement the NMR system on CMOS chips and streamline the experimental procedure.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ka-Meng Lei
    • 1
  • Pui-In Mak
    • 2
  • Man-Kay Law
    • 1
  • Rui Paulo Martins
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.State-Key Laboratory of Analog and Mixed-Signal VLSIUniversity of MacauMacauChina
  2. 2.State-Key Laboratory of Analog and Mixed-Signal VLSI and FST-ECEUniversity of MacauMacauChina
  3. 3.Instituto Superior Técnico Universidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal

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