• Ka-Meng Lei
  • Pui-In Mak
  • Man-Kay Law
  • Rui Paulo Martins


An essential part to evaluate the success of global health is the access to appropriate diagnostic tools [1]. A commendable diagnostic tool should be able to identify the disease occurred from the individuals rapidly. Especially for the infectious diseases, the turnaround time (TAT) for the diagnosis strongly affects their exacerbation level to the community. In vitro diagnostic (IVD) tool is aimed to offer a comfortable diagnosis for the patients, by taking only small specimens from the human body, e.g., blood, urine, or sputum, for analysis. Consequently, technologies enabling effective in vitro diagnosis become highly attractive for both developed and developing countries [2]. Tremendous efforts have been geared toward developing clinical-level IVD tools. Despite achieving high accuracy, the resulting TAT can be too long for diagnoses of contagious diseases like Ebola and SARS in the rural area, and the requisite of skillful operators and sophisticated equipment to perform the assays can dramatically raise the cost of the assay.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ka-Meng Lei
    • 1
  • Pui-In Mak
    • 2
  • Man-Kay Law
    • 1
  • Rui Paulo Martins
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.State-Key Laboratory of Analog and Mixed-Signal VLSIUniversity of MacauMacauChina
  2. 2.State-Key Laboratory of Analog and Mixed-Signal VLSI and FST-ECEUniversity of MacauMacauChina
  3. 3.Instituto Superior Técnico Universidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal

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