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Mantle Influence on Andean and Pre-Andean Topography

  • Federico M. Dávila
  • Carolina Lithgow-Bertelloni
  • Federico Martina
  • Pilar Ávila
  • Julieta Nóbile
  • Gilda Collo
  • Miguel Ezpeleta
  • Horacio Canelo
  • Francisco Sánchez
Chapter
Part of the Springer Earth System Sciences book series (SPRINGEREARTH)

Abstract

Mantle convection can drive long-wavelength and low-amplitude topography, which can occur synchronously and superimposed to tectonics. The discrimination between these two topographic components, however, is difficult to assert. This is because there are still several uncertainties and debates in the geodynamic community, for example, the scales and rates of dynamic topography. Geological, geomorphological, geophysical measurements, and/or landscape analyses might assist to validate models. In this contribution, we provide new geological evidences along the Central and Patagonian Andes, which demonstrate that dynamic topography has been an important component on the South American landscape formation as well as in the ancient western Gondwana. Our examples in the Argentine Pampas show that dynamic topography is required to explain not only the basin subsidence but also the whole observed topography. We also suggest that the dynamic components in this region are much lower than numerical models (average dynamic subsidence rates of ~0.04 mm/yr—this work— which contrast with the ~0.1 mm/yr estimated in the US). We also propose two strategies to analyze ancient cases. The first requires of comparing a total elevation proxy, like the equilibrium lines (or ELA) in glaciated areas, with model topography derived from geochemical studies of mantle rocks. A second strategy was the analysis of the Triassic rifting evolution of western Argentina (post-rift sag deposits). Sag deposit thicknesses exceed 2 km, which do not correlate with the 100 m thick thermal calculated by rift subsidence modeling.

Keywords

Dynamic uplift Dynamic subsidence Mantle Flat subduction zone Glaciations Triassic rifting 

Notes

Acknowledgements

FONCyT, PUE 2016 CICTERRA CONICET, and SECyT-UNC (Argentina), the Royal Society and UCL (UK), and the Marie Curie Fellowship IIF Program (ANDYN Project, EU) supported our studies in South America.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Federico M. Dávila
    • 1
  • Carolina Lithgow-Bertelloni
    • 2
  • Federico Martina
    • 1
  • Pilar Ávila
    • 1
  • Julieta Nóbile
    • 1
  • Gilda Collo
    • 1
  • Miguel Ezpeleta
    • 1
  • Horacio Canelo
    • 1
  • Francisco Sánchez
    • 1
  1. 1.CICTERRACONICET—FCEFyN—Universidad Nacional de CórdobaCórdobaArgentina
  2. 2.University College LondonLondonEngland

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