Perspective in Pigmentation Disorders

  • Manish Adhikari
  • Anser Ali
  • Nagendra Kumar Kaushik
  • Eun Ha Choi


Melanin is primarily designated as animal cutaneous pigment and considered separately from similar fungal or bacterial pigments. Pigmentation disorders comprise various kinds of diverse conditions that are usually categorized by altered melanocyte embryological development, melanin concentration, defects in melanogenesis, flaws in biogenesis of melanosomes, problems in Melanosomes transport and its survival or both, and result in altered pigmentation of the skin. Many of the disorders by pigmentation are extremely common like melasma and vitiligo whereas some are very rare. Many gene mutations related to pigmentation disorder already described, but the function of their final product protein and their implication in melanogenesis are only partially understood, brings new clues in the understanding of the pigmentation process. In recent years, several reports have demonstrated the wide range of nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma applications on melanogenesis. This chapter serves as a comprehensive update on the current understanding of the pigmentation production, disease associated with interaction of skin pigmentation with UV rays, hypermelanogenesis and hypomelanogenesis, as well as treatments for this common, yet therapeutically challenging conditions using surgical, hormonal, immunological, antioxidative and cold atmospheric plasma treatment compounds.


Melanogenesis; Melanin Pigmentation disorders Cold plasma 


Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


This work was supported by a grant from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), which is funded by the Korean Government, Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP), (NRF-2016K1A4A3914113) and Kwangwoon University in 2017.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manish Adhikari
    • 1
  • Anser Ali
    • 2
  • Nagendra Kumar Kaushik
    • 1
  • Eun Ha Choi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Biological Physics, Applied Plasma Medicine CenterKwangwoon UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyMirpur University of Science and TechnologyMirpurPakistan

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