Aging with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities have more than average health problems throughout their lifespan, and yet they experience significant barriers to healthcare that meets their needs. One of the surmountable barriers is medical and allied health practitioner inexperience. The purpose of this chapter is to educate and empower medical professionals to address the needs of aging individuals diagnosed with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Intellectual and developmental disabilities encompass a heterogeneous population. This chapter addresses age-related issues pertinent to those diagnosed with intellectual and developmental disabilities such as intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. Changes in diagnostic criteria, terms, and trends over time have influenced how people with intellectual and developmental disabilities have been labeled and where they access care. Despite the heterogeneity of etiologies, presentations, comorbidities, and social contexts, there are common considerations for those aging with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Biopsychosocial models of care are particularly vital for individuals who present with complex presentations and backgrounds of varying physical, medical, and neuropsychiatric (including cognitive, mood, anxiety, and language) concerns. A systematic approach with an emphasis on patient-centered management will be illustrated with two case examples (woman with Down syndrome and gentleman with an autism spectrum disorder). Tools and resources are provided to guide and augment practice for patients aging with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
KeywordsAging Intellectual and developmental disabilities Autism spectrum disorder Biopsychosocial approach Communicate CARE HELP framework
Grateful acknowledgment goes to the many living with developmental and intellectual disabilities who have so much to teach. Sincere appreciation is extended to Dr. Elspeth Bradley for generously sharing her clinical wisdom, the HELP framework, and time to review this chapter.
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