Life Cycle Thinking and Analysis, Design for Environment, and Industrial Ecology Frameworks
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This chapter explores the product life cycle , life cycle analytical tools and design for the environment (DfE) methodology. The product life cycle from an operations management (OM) perspective includes material acquisition, manufacturing, distribution, use and after-use. DfE explores eco-design options at each stage of this product life cycle to proactively reduce the impact of industrial activities on the environment. This chapter also presents two Industrial Ecology (IE) frameworks, one at a factor level and the other one at a supply chain level. These two frameworks illustrate the importance of integration and collaboration among different parts and parties within and across industrial ecosystems to increase levels of closed-loop material, energy and waste flows, which reduce their interaction with natural systems, hence the reduced impact.
KeywordsLife cycle thinking/analysis Design for environment (DfE) Industrial Ecology (IE) frameworks
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